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Methodological Issues/Technique


American Society of Echocardiography Consensus Statement on the Clinical Applications of Ultrasonic Contrast Agents in Echocardiography.

Mulvagh SL, Rakowski H, Vannan MA, Abdelmoneim SS, Becher H, Bierig SM, Burns PN, Castello R, Coon PD, Hagen ME, Jollis JG, Kimball TR, Kitzman DW, Kronzon I, FESC, Labovitz AJ, Lang RM, FESC, Mathew J, Moir WS, Nagueh SF, Pearlman AS, Perez JE, Porter TR, Rosenbloom J, Strachan GM, Thanigaraj S, Wei K, Woo A, Yu EHC, Zoghbi WA.
A review of the applications for contrast echocardiography and their impact on cardiac diagnosis.
Reference: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 2008;21:1179-1201

Myocardial contrast echocardiography: a 25-year retrospective.

Kaul S, FESC.
A 25-year retrospective review on MCE with emphasis on more recent developments and remaining challenges for the field.
Reference: Circulation. 2008 Jul 15;118(3):291-308

Recommendations for chamber quantification

Lang RM, FESC, Bierig M, Devereux RB et al.
Indications to when to use contrast enhancement in this critical review of the literature and an update of recommendations on how to quantitate cardiac chambers using echocardiography made jointly by the American Society of Echocardiography and European Association of Echocardiography.
Reference: Eur J Echocardiogr. 2006;7:79-108

Other topics related to Contrast