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1. Normal and abnormal anatomy of the heart and the conduction system

  • Cabrera JA1, Sánchez-Quintana D. Cardiac anatomy: what the electrophysiologist needs to know. Heart. 2013 Mar;99(6):417-31. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2011-301154. Epub 2013 Jan 25.
    # Fundamental review on cardiac anatomy focusing relevant aspects for the interventional EP, including fluoroscopic projections. A must read in the beginning of EP training. 
  • Morton JB, Kalman JM. Intracardiac echocardiographic anatomy for the interventional electrophysiologist. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2005 Aug;13 Suppl 1:11-6. Review.
    # Good review to start up using ICE- basic anatomic views with and references. 
  • D'Avila A, Scanavacca M, Sosa E, Ruskin JN, Reddy VY. Pericardial anatomy for the interventional electrophysiologist. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2003 Apr;14(4):422-30.
    # Review on relevant anatomy for pericardial access and ablation procedures. 
  • Macedo PG, Kapa S, Mears JA, Fratianni A, Asirvatham SJ. Correlative anatomy for the electrophysiologist: ablation for atrial fibrillation. Part II: regional anatomy of the atria and relevance to damage of adjacent structures during AF ablation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2010 Jul;21(7):829-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2010.01730.x. Epub 2010 Feb 11. Review.
    # Good for extended read on anatomic relations of the atrium with adjacent structures like the oesophagus focusing on atrial fibrillation ablation safety. 
  • Sánchez-Quintana D1, Pizarro G, López-Mínguez JR, Ho SY, Cabrera JA. Standardized review of atrial anatomy for cardiac electrophysiologists. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2013 Apr;6(2):124-44. doi: 10.1007/s12265-013-9447-2. Epub 2013 Feb 7.
    # Very comprehensive review of right and left atrium anatomy with emphasis on understanding mapping and ablation of supraventiruclar arrhythmias.
  • Bradfield JS, Shivkumar K. Anatomy for Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation in Structural Heart Disease. Card Electrophysiol Clin. 2017 Mar;9(1):11-24. doi:10.1016/j.ccep.2016.10.002. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    # A must read before starting structural VT ablation. Extended anatomy review to master effective and safe ablation procedures.
  • Asirvatham SJ. Correlative anatomy for the invasive electrophysiologist: outflow tract and supravalvar arrhythmia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2009 Aug;20(8):955-68. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2009.01472.x.
    # Special focus on ventricular premature beats from the outflow tract, with relevant considerations for safety and also VPB localization from 12 lead ECG. 
  • Lachman N, Syed FF, Habib A, Kapa S, Bisco SE, Venkatachalam KL, Asirvatham SJ. Correlative anatomy for the electrophysiologist, part II: cardiac ganglia, phrenic nerve, coronary venous system. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2011 Jan;22(1):104-10. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2010.01882.x. Epub 2010 Aug 30. PMID: 20807274
    # Relevant for coronary venous system review, including vein of marshal and phrenic nerve anatomic relations with frequent ablation targets.
  • Cabrera JA, Ho SY, Climent V, Sánchez-Quintana D. The architecture of the left lateral atrial wall: a particular anatomic region with implications for ablation of atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J. 2008 Feb;29(3):356-62.
    # Variability of the left lateral ridge thickness and width and its relevance for atrial fibrillation abliation. 
  • Jongbloed MR1, Vicente Steijn R, Hahurij ND, Kelder TP, Schalij MJ, Gittenberger-de Groot AC, Blom NA. Normal and abnormal development of the cardiac conduction system; implications for conduction and rhythm disorders in the child and adult. Differentiation. 2012 Jul;84(1):131-48. doi: 10.1016/j.diff.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Jun 3.
    # This review focus on embryonic development of the CCS in relation to clinical arrhythmias, as well as on specific cardiac conduction abnormalities that are observed in patients with congenital heart disease.