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3. Arrhythmic disorders (epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, clinical features and diagnosis, prognosis and risk evaluation, treatment, prevention

Sinus node and atrial impulse formation and conduction disorders

  • John RM, Kumar S. Sinus Node and Atrial Arrhythmias. Circulation. 2016 May 10;133(19):1892 900. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.018011.
    # Review on Sinus node disease and insights to the relation with other atrial arrhythmias including insights into management of atrial arrhythmias and SND.
  • Thiyagarajah A, Lau DH, Sanders P. Atrial fibrillation and conduction system disease: the roles of catheter ablation and permanent pacing. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2018 Aug;52(3):395-402. doi: 10.1007/s10840-018-0429-9. Epub 2018 Aug 3.
    # Review on Sinus node disease and relation to atrial fibrillation, including the role of pacing and ablation to manage brady-tachy syndrome,  preventing AF during pacing for SND. Further insights into LBBB and AF, including AV node ablation and rhythm control with AF ablation to improve biventricular pacing in patients with heart failure and CRT. 

AV nodal and His-Purkinje conduction disorders

  • Mani BC, Pavri BB. Dual atrioventricular nodal pathways physiology: a review of relevant anatomy, electrophysiology, and electrocardiographic manifestations. Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J. 2014 Jan 1;14(1):12-25. eCollection 2014 Jan.
    # Comprehensive review on Dual AV nodal physiology and AVNRT, including the effect of adenosine, beta-adrenergic blockade and vagus nerve stimulation on dual pathways physiology. ECG signs of dual AV node physiology are explained. 
  • Haissaguerre M, Vigmond E, Stuyvers B, Hocini M, Bernus O. Ventricular arrhythmias and the His-Purkinje system. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2016 Mar;13(3):155-66. doi: 10.1038/nrcardio.2015.193. Epub 2016 Jan 4.
    # Review on Purkinje physiology and pathogenic role of the Purkinje system  in ventricular arrhythmias (both monomorphic VT and polymorphic VT / FV) and sudden cardiac death. The paper provides detailed review from anatomy to ion channel proprieties that are relevant to understand the normal function and potential arrhythmia mechanisms.  

Atrial and thoracic vein ectopy and tachycardias 

  • Roberts-Thomson KC1, Kistler PM, Kalman JM. Focal atrial tachycardia I: clinical features, diagnosis, mechanisms, and anatomic location. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2006 Jun;29(6):643-52.
    # Concise review on focal atrial arrhythmias, including clinical aspects, differential diagnosis from ECG tracings, anatomic considerations and proposed arrhythmia mechanisms. 
  • Roberts-Thomson KC1, Kistler PM, Kalman JM. Focal atrial tachycardia II: management. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2006 Jul;29(7):769-78.
    # Comprehensive review on management of focal tachycardias including pharmacological therapy, and EP study. The review summarizes mapping techniques (both activation mapping and pace mapping) and describes characteristics to identify a good ablation signal. 
  • Chen YJ, Chen SA. Thoracic vein arrhythmias. Circ J. 2007;71 Suppl A:A20-5.
    # Review electrophysiological and relevant anatomical aspects of thoracic vein arrhythmias. Detailed description on superior vena cava, coronary sinus and ligament of Marshall related arrhythmias that is relevant to better understand their relevance to atrial fibrillation.
  • de Bakker JM, Ho SY, Hocini M. Basic and clinical electrophysiology of pulmonary vein ectopy. Cardiovasc Res. 2002 May;54(2):287-94.
    # Interesting and detailed review on the mechanisms of pulmonary vein ectopy and their relevance to atrial fibrillation. 

Atrial flutter 

  • A classification of atrial flutter and regular atrial tachycardia according to electrophysiological mechanisms and anatomical bases; a Statement from a Joint Expert Group from The Working Group of Arrhythmias of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Saoudi N, Cosío F, Waldo A, Chen SA, Iesaka Y, Lesh M, Saksena S, Salerno J, Schoels W; Working Group of Arrhythmias of the European of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Eur Heart J. 2001 Jul;22(14):1162-82. Review.
  • Prospective randomized comparison of antiarrhythmic therapy versus first-line radiofrequency ablation in patients with atrial flutter. Natale A, Newby KH, Pisanó E, Leonelli F, Fanelli R, Potenza D, Beheiry S, Tomassoni G. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Jun;35(7):1898-904
  • Randomized study comparing combined pulmonary vein-left atrial junction disconnection and cavotricuspid isthmus ablation versus pulmonary vein-left atrial junction disconnection alone in patients presenting with typical atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation. Wazni O, Marrouche NF, Martin DO, Gillinov AM, Saliba W, Saad E, Klein A, Bhargava M, Bash D, Schweikert R, Erciyes D, Abdul-Karim A, Brachman J, Gunther J, Pisano E, Potenza D, Fanelli R, Natale A. Circulation. 2003 Nov 18;108(20):2479-83. Epub 2003 Nov 10.

Atrial fibrillation 

  • Pathophysiology and prevention of atrial fibrillation. Allessie MA, Boyden PA, Camm AJ, Kléber AG, Lab MJ, Legato MJ, Rosen MR, Schwartz PJ, Spooner PM, Van Wagoner DR, Waldo AL. Circulation. 2001 Feb 6;103(5):769-77.
  • Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Atrial Fibrosis in Atrial Fibrillation. Nattel S. JACC Clin Electrophysiol. 2017 May;3(5):425-435.
  • Modifiable Risk Factors and Atrial Fibrillation. Lau DH, Nattel S, Kalman JM, Sanders P. Circulation. 2017 Aug 8;136(6):583-596.
  • A comparison of rate control and rhythm control in patients with atrial fibrillation. Wyse DG, Waldo AL, DiMarco JP, Domanski MJ, Rosenberg Y, Schron EB, Kellen JC, Greene HL, Mickel MC, Dalquist JE, Corley SD; Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) Investigators. N Engl J Med. 2002 Dec 5;347(23):1825-33.
  • Spontaneous initiation of atrial fibrillation by ectopic beats originating in the pulmonary veins. Haïssaguerre M, Jaïs P, Shah DC, Takahashi A, Hocini M, Quiniou G, Garrigue S, Le Mouroux A, Le Métayer P, Clémenty J. N Engl J Med. 1998 Sep 3;339(10):659-66.

Junctional and AV node ectopy and tachycardias

  • Heidbüchel H, Jackman WM. Characterization of subforms of AV nodal reentrant tachycardia. Europace 2004 Jul;6(4):316-29.
  • Jaganmohan A Tharakan and Kiron Sukulal. Post cardiac surgery junctional ectopic tachycardia: A ‘Hit and Run’ tachyarrhythmia as yet unchecked. Ann PediatrCardiol. 2014 Jan-Apr; 7(1): 25–28. doi: 10.4103/0974-2069.126545; PMID: 24701081. 
  • Hafeez Y, Grossman SA. Junctional Rhythm.StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019. 2019 Feb 15. PMID: 29939537. 
  • ShomuBohora, YashLokhandwala, Eduardo Back Sternick, Robert H. Anderson, and Hein J.J. Wellens. Reappraisal and new observations on atrial tachycardia ablated from the non-coronary aortic sinus of Valsalva. EP Europace, vol.20, number 1, 2018. Pages 124-133.

Accessory pathway mediated tachycardias 

  • Mahaim Accessory Pathways. Katritsis DG, Wellens HJ, Josephson ME. Arrhythm Electrophysiol Rev. 2017 Apr;6(1):29-32.
  • Jesús Almendral, Eduardo Castellanos, Mercedes Ortiz. Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardias and Preexcitation Syndromes. Rev EspCardiol. 2012;65:456-69 - Vol. 65 Num.05 DOI: 10.1016/j.rec.2011.11.020. 
  • BasiliosPetrellis, Allan C,.Skanes, George J.Klein, Andrew D.Krahn, Raymond Yee. Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias (Second Edition), 2011, Pages 425-443/Special Problems in Ablation of Accessory Pathways/. 
  • Letsas KP, Efremidis M, Vlachos K, Georgopoulos S, Karamichalakis N, Saplaouras A, Xydonas S, Valkanas K, Sideris A. Catheter ablation of anteroseptal accessory pathways from the aortic cusps: A case series and a review of the literature. J Arrhythm. 2016 Dec;32(6):443-448. Epub 2016 Apr 19.
  • Brugada J, Keegan R. Asymptomatic Ventricular Pre-excitation: Between Sudden Cardiac Death and Catheter Ablation. Arrhythm Electrophysiol Rev. 2018 Mar;7(1):32-38. doi: 10.15420/aer.2017.51.2.

Ventricular ectopy and tachycardias

  • G André Ng. Treating patients with ventricular ectopic beats.Heart. 2006 Nov; 92(11): 1707–1712. doi: 10.1136/hrt.2005.067843. PMID: 17041126.
  • Adam Lee, MBBS, MMed (Clin Epi), Tomos E. Walters, MBBS, PhD, Edward P. Gerstenfeld, MD, Haris M. Haqqani, MBBS, PhD. Frequent Ventricular Ectopy: Implications and Outcomes. Heart, Lung and Circulation (2019) 28, 178–190. 
  • Luebbert J, Auberson D, Marchlinski F. Premature Ventricular Complexes in Apparently Normal Hearts. Card Electrophysiol Clin. 2016 Sep;8(3):503-14. doi: 10.1016/j.ccep.2016.04.001. Epub 2016 Jun 22. Review.
  • Betensky BP, Park RE, Marchlinski FE, Hutchinson MD, Garcia FC, Dixit S, Callans DJ, Cooper JM, Bala R, Lin D, Riley MP, Gerstenfeld EP. The V(2) transition ratio: a new electrocardiographic criterion for distinguishing left from right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia origin.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 May 31;57(22):2255-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.01.035.
    Shirai Y, Liang JJ, Santangeli P, Supple GE, Riley MP, Garcia FC, Lin D, Dixit S, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE, Frankel DS, Schaller RD. Catheter ablation of premature ventricular complexes with low intraprocedural burden guided exclusively by pace-mapping. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2019 Aug 19. doi: 10.1111/jce.14127. [Epub ahead of print]
  • JayaprakashShenthar. Unusual Incessant Ventricular Tachycardia. Originally published 1 Dec 2015;  Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. 2015;8:1507–1511. 
  • A. KESH HEBBAR, M.D. and WILLIAM J. HUESTON, M.D., Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina. Management of Common Arrhythmias: Part II. Ventricular Arrhythmias and Arrhythmias in Special Populations. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Jun 15;65(12):2491-2497. 
  • Vincent L., Juarez M., Martin I., Garcia J., Gonzalez-Saldivar H., Bruna V., Devesa C., Sousa-Casasnovas I., Fernandez-Aviles F., Martinez-Selles M. (Madrid). Ventricular Arrhythmic Storm after Initiating Sacubitril/Valsartan.Cardiology/Karger/, 139(2) 71-138 (2018).Pages 119-131.
  • Justine Bhar-Amato, William Daves, Sharad Agarwal. Ventricular Arrhythmia after Acute Myocardial Infarction: “The Perfect Storm”. AER journal, vol.6, Issue 3, 2017, pages 134-139.
  • David F. Briceno, Jorge Romero, Pedro A. Villablanca, Alejandra Londono, Juan C. Diaz, IlirMaraj, SyedaAtiqaBatul, Nidhi Madan, Jignesh Patel, AnandJagannath, SanghamitraMohanty, PrasantMohanty, Carola Gianni, Domenico Della Rocca, AhlamSabri, Soo G. Kim, Andrea Natale, and Luigi Di Biase. Long-term outcomes of different ablation strategies for ventricular tachycardia in patients with structural heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. EP Europace, vol.20, number 1, 2018, pages 104-115. 
  • Sacher F, Lim HS, Derval N, Denis A, Berte B, Yamashita S, Hocini M, Haissaguerre M, Jaïs P. Substrate mapping and ablation for ventricular tachycardia: the LAVA approach. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2015 Apr;26(4):464-471. doi: 10.1111/jce.12565. Epub 2014 Dec 2.
  • Eun-Jeong Kim, Giovanni Davogustto, William G Stevenson and Roy M. John. Non-invasive Cardiac Radiation for Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia: a New Therapeutic Paradigm in Electrophysiology. AER journal, vol.7, Issue 1, 2018, pages 8-10. 

Ventricular fibrillation 

  • Nichol G, Sayre MR, Guerra F, Poole J. Defibrillation for Ventricular Fibrillation – A shocking update. JACC 2017;70(12):1496-1509
    # This state-of-the-art review concentrates on cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. It discusses epidemiology, outcome and improvements in defibrillation. Different defibrillation techniques (automatic external defibrillators, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators or wearable cardioverter-defibrillators) are presented with a brief history of the evolution of defibrillation, technical characteristics and strategies.
  • Krummen DE, Ho G, Villongco CT, Hayase J, Schricker AA. Ventricular fibrillation: triggers, mechanisms and therapies. Future Cardiol 2016;12(3):373-90
    # Review on initiation, transition, maintenance and evolution of ventricular fibrillation.
  • Anderson RD, Kumar S, Kalman JM, Sanders P, Sacher F, Hocini M, Jais P, Haissaguerre M, Lee G. Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Fibrillation. Heart Lung Circ 2019;28:110-22
    # ICDs can prevent sudden cardiac death from ventricular fibrillation but cannot prevent VF recurrences. This review concentrates on mechanisms of VF and utility of catheter ablation to treat recurrent VF episodes.
  • Beck CS, Pritchard WH, Feil HS. Ventricular fibrillation of long duration abolished by electric shock. J Am Med Assoc 1947;135:985
    # First successful use of an alternating-current internal defibrillator reported in human in 1947.
  • Zoll PM, Linenthal AJ, Norman LR, Paul MH, Gibson W. Treatment of unexpected cardiac arrest by external electric stimulation of the heart. N Engl J Med 1956;254:541-6
    # First successful use of an alternating-current external defibrillator on a human reported in 1956.
  • Haissaguerre M, Shoda M, Jais P, Nogami A, Shah DC, Kautzner J, Arentz T, Kalushe D, Lamaison D, Griffith M, Cruz F, de Paola A, Gaita F, Hocini M, Garrigue S, Macle L, Weerasooriya R, Clémenty J. Mapping and ablation of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. Circulation 2002;106(8):962-7
    # VF is usually initiated by PVC or due to degeneration of a VT. PVC may fall in a vulnerable period resulting in an R-on-T phenomenon due to short coupling interval. Malignant PVCs may originate from the Purkinje system and can be addressed by catheter ablation.
  • Boriani G, Fauchier L, Aguinaga L, Beattie JM, Blomstrom Lundqvist C, Cohen A, Dan GA, Genovesi S, Israel C, Joung B, Kalarus Z, Lampert R, Malavasi VL, Mansourati J, Mont L, Potpara T, Thornton A, Lip GYH. European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) consensus document on management of arrhythmias and cardiac electronic devices in the critically ill and post-surgery patient, endorsed by Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), Cardiac Arrhythmia Society of Southern Africa (CASSA), and Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS). Europace 2019;21(1):7-8
  • Lane DA, Aguinaga L, Blomström-Lundqvist C, Boriani G, Dan GA, Hills MT, Hylek EM, LaHaye SA, Lip GYH, Lobdan T, Mandrola J, McCabe PJ, Pedersen SS, Pisters R, Stewart Simon, Wood Kathryn, Potpara TS. Cardiac tachyarrhythmias and patient values and preferences for their management: the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) consensus document endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisioloigía (SOLEACE). Europace 2017;17(12):1747-69

Autonomic disorders (carotid sinus hypersensitivity, neurocardiogenic syncope, other) 

  • Saklani P, Krahn A, Klein G. Syncope. Circulation 2013;127:1330-9# Review on syncope etiology, prognosis, assessment and treatment.
  • Mosqueda-Garcia R, Furlan R, Tank J, Fernandez-Violante R. The elusive pathophysiology of neurally mediated syncope. Circulation 2000;102(23):2898-906
    # Review on neurocardiogenic syncope including classification, pathophysiology. This review discusses in detail different pathomechanistic theories.
  • Sheldon RS, Grubb BP 2nd, Olshansky B, Shen WK, Calkins H, Brignole M, Raj SR, Krahn AD, Morillo CA, Stewart JM, Sutton R, Sandroni P, Friday KJ, Hachul DT, Cohen MI, Lau DH, Mayuga KA, Moak JP, Sandhu RK, Kanjwal K. 2015 heart rhythm society expert consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, and vasovagal syncope. Heart Rhythm 2015;12(6):e41-63
    # HRS consensus statement and review on postural tachycardia síndrome, inappropriate sinus tachycardia and vasovagal syncope.
  • Olshansky B, Sullivan RM. Inappropriate sinus tachycardia. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;61(8):793-801
    # Review on inappropriate sinus tachycardia including definition, mechanisms, differential diagnosis and treatment.
  • Arnold AC, Ng J, Lei L, Raj SR. Autonomic Dysfunction in Cardiology – Pathophysiology, Investigation, and Management. Can J Cardiol 2017;33(12)1524-34
    # Detailed overview on presyncope and syncope secondary to automatic dysfunction.
  • Witt CM, Bolona L, Kinney MO, Moir C, Ackerman M, Kapa S, Asirvatham SJ, McLeod CJ. Denervation of the extrinsic sympathetic nervous system as a treatment modality for arrhythmia. Europace 2017;19(7):1075-83
    # Denervation of the extrinsic cardiac sympathetic nervous system has been studied and employed as a therapy for cardiac diseases since long. This review focuses on anatomy and physiology of the cardiac autonomic nervous system and its use for therapeutic approaches.
  • Varosy PD, Chen LY, Miller AL, Noseworthy PA, Slotwiner DJ, Thiruganasambandamoorthy V. Pacing as a Treatment for Reflex-Mediated (Vasovagal, Situational, or Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity) Syncope: A Systematic Review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/HRS Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Patients with Syncope: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017;70(5):664-79
    # Systematic review on pacing for risk reduction of recurrent syncope in patients with reflex-mediated syncope.
  • Romme JJCM, Reitsma JB, Black CN, Colman N, Scholten RJ, Wieling W, Van Dijk N. Drugs and pacemakers for vasovagal, carotid sinus and situational syncope. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;(10):CD004194
    # Cochrane review examining the effects of pharmacological therapy and pacemaker implantation in patients with vasovagal syncope, carotid sinus syncope and situational syncope.
  • Soteriades ES, Evans JC, Larson MG, Chen MH, Chen L, Benajmin EJ, Levy D. Incidence and prognosis of syncope. N Engl J Med 2002;347:878-85
    # Study on incidence, causes and prognosis of syncope on 7814 subjects in the Framingheart Heart Study over 17 years. Subjects with cardiac syncope show an elevated risk for death of any cause and cardiovascular events; subjects with syncope of unknown origin show an increased risk for death from any cause.
  • Tea SH, Mansourati J, L’Heveder G, Mabin D, Blanc JJ. New insights into the pathophysiology of carotid sinus syndrome. Circulation 1996;93(7):1411-6
    # Study suggesting neuromuscular structure surrounding the carotid mechanoreceptors are involved in carotid sinus syndrome.
  • Leitch JW, Klein GJ, Yee R, Leather RA, Kim YH. Syncope associated with supraventricular tachycardia. An expression of tachycardia rate or vasomotor response? Circulation 1992;85(3):1064-71
    # Study on mechanism of syncope during SVT showing that syncope during SVT is rather related to vasomotor response and not to tachycardia rate.
  • Di Girolamo E, Di Iorio C, Leonzio L, Sabatini P, Barsotti A. Usefulness of a tilt training program for the prevention of refractory neurocardiogenic syncope in adolescents: A controlled study. Circulation 1999;100(17):1798-801
    # Controlled study in adolescent patients with neurocardiogenic syncope on orthostatic training at home by standing against a wall twice a day for a planned duration of up to 40 minutes. Orthostatic training was found to significantly improve symptoms.
  • Glick G, Yu PN. Hemodynamic changes during spontaneous vasovagal reactions. Am J Med 1963;34:42-51
    # Study on hemodynamic changes occurring in patients at the time of cardiac catheterization in whom vasovagal reactions supervened.
  • Ganzeboom KS, Mairuhu G, Reitsma JB, Linzer M, Wieling W, Van Dijk N. Lifetime cumulative incidence of syncope in the general population: A study of 549 Dutch subjects agred 35-60 years. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2006;17(11):1172-6
    # Study on lifetime cumulative incidence of syncope in a Dutch population. Cumulative lifetime incidence was high in the general population.
  • van Bilsen M, Patel HC, Bauersachs J, Böhm M, Borggrefe M, Brutsaert D, Coats AJS, de Boer RA, de Keulenaer GW, Filippatos GS, Floras J, Grassi G, Jankowska EA, Kornet L, Lunde IG, Maack C, Mahfoud F, Pollesello P, Ponikowski P, Ruschitzka F, Sabbah HN, Schultz HD, Seferovic P, Slart RHJA, Taggert P, Tocchetti CG, van Laake LW, Zannad F, Heymanns S, Lyon AR. The autonomic nervous system as a therapeutic target in heart failure: a scientific position statement from the Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur J Heart Fail 2017;19(11):1361-787