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Recommended Reading on Nuclear Cardiology & Cardiac CT

European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI)

Cardiac Computed Tomography
Nuclear Imaging

A selection of scientific papers, focusing on Nuclear cardiology and Cardiac CT.

Nuclear Cardiology

Physics, Instrumentation, Tracers

Planar and SPECT
  • L'Abbate A, Biagini A, Michelassi C. Myocardial kinetics of thallium and potassium in man. Circulation. 1979 Oct;60(4):776-85
  • Jain D, Wackers FJ, Mattera J, McMahon M, Sinusas AJ, Zaret BL. Biokinetics of technetium-99m-tetrofosmin: myocardial perfusion imaging agent: implications for a one-day imaging protocol. J Nucl Med. 1993;34:1254-9
  • Beanlands RS, Dawood F, Wen WH, et al. Are the kinetics of technetium-99m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile affected by cell metabolism and viability? Circulation. 1990 Nov;82(5):1802-14
  • Kapur A, Latus KA, Davies G, Dhawan RT, Eastick S, Jarritt PH, et al. A comparison of three radionuclide myocardial perfusion tracers in clinical practice: the ROBUST study. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2002;29:1608-16
  • Chapman DR, Garcia EV, Berman DS, et al. Detection of one-millimeter motion under conditions simulating equilibrium blood-pool scinitgraphy. J Nucl Med. 1982 Jan;23(1):42-7.
  • Ureña PE, Lamas GA, Mitchell G, et al. Ejection fraction by radionuclide ventriculography and contrast left ventriculogram. A tale of two techniques. SAVE Investigators. Survival and Ventricular Enlargement. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999 Jan;33(1):180-5
  • Muzik O, Beanlands RS, Hutchins GD, et al. Validation of nitrogen-13-ammonia tracer kinetic model for quantification of myocardial blood flow using PET. J Nucl Med. 1993 Jan;34(1):83-91
  • Gould KL, Goldstein RA, Mullani NA, et al. Noninvasive assessment of coronary stenoses by myocardial perfusion imaging during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation. VIII. Clinical feasibility of positron cardiac imaging without a cyclotron using generator-produced rubidium-82. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1986 Apr;7(4):775-89
  • Marshall RC, Tillisch JH, Phelps ME, et al. Identification and differentiation of resting myocardial ischemia and infarction in man with positron computed tomography, 18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose and N-13 ammonia. Circulation. 1983 Apr;67(4):766-78
  • vom Dahl J, Muzik O, Wolfe ER Jr, et al. Myocardial rubidium-82 tissue kinetics assessed by dynamic positron emission tomography as a marker of myocardial cell membrane integrity and viability. Circulation. 1996 Jan 15;93(2):238-45.
  • Kaufmann PA, Gnecchi-Ruscone T, Yap JT, et al. Assessment of the reproducibility of baseline and hyperemic myocardial blood flow measurements with 15O-labeled water and PET. J Nucl Med. 1999 Nov;40(11):1848-56.
  • Paternostro G, Camici PG, Lammerstma AA, et al. Cardiac and skeletal muscle insulin resistance in patients with coronary heart disease. A study with positron emission tomography. J Clin Invest. 1996 Nov 1;98(9):2094-9.
  • Packard RR, Huang SC, Dahlbom M, et al. Absolute quantitation of myocardial blood flow in human subjects with or without myocardial ischemia using dynamic flurpiridaz F 18 PET. J Nucl Med. 2014 Sep;55(9):1438-44.

Radiation safety

  • Einstein AJ, Blankstein R, Andrews H, Fish M, Padgett R, Hayes SW, et al. Comparison of image quality, myocardial perfusion, and left ventricular function between standard imaging and single-injection ultra-low-dose imaging using a high-efficiency SPECT camera: the MILLISIEVERT study. J Nucl Med. 2014;55:1430-7.
  • Einstein AJ, Pascual TN, Mercuri M, et al. Current worldwide nuclear cardiology practices and radiation exposure: results from the 65 country IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Cross-Sectional Study (INCAPS). Eur Heart J. 2015 Jul 7;36(26):1689-96
  • Perrin M, Djaballah W, Moulin F, et al. Stress-first protocol for myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging with semiconductor cameras: high diagnostic performances with significant reduction in patient radiation doses. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2015 Jun;42(7):1004-11
  • Caobelli F, Kaiser SR, Thackeray JT, et al. IQ SPECT allows a significant reduction in administered dose and acquisition time for myocardial perfusion imaging: evidence from a phantom study. J Nucl Med. 2014 Dec;55(12):2064-70
  • Dey T, Backus BE, Romijn RL, et al. Low-dose single acquisition rest (99m)Tc/stress (201)Tl myocardial perfusion SPECT protocol: phantom studies and clinical validation. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2014 Mar;41(3):536-47.
  • Almeida P, Bendriem B, de Dreuille O, et al. Dosimetry of transmission measurements in nuclear medicine: a study using anthropomorphic phantoms and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Eur J Nucl Med. 1998 Oct;25(10):1435-41
  • Dorbala S, Blankstein R, Skali H, et al. Approaches to reducing radiation dose from radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging. J Nucl Med. 2015 Apr;56(4):592-9
  • Senthamizhchelvan S, Bravo PE, Lodge MA, Merrill J, et al. Radiation dosimetry of 82Rb in humans under pharmacologic stress. J Nucl Med. 2011 Mar;52(3):485-91
  • Lubberink M, Harms HJ, Halbmeijer R, et al. Low-dose quantitative myocardial blood flow imaging using 15O-water and PET without attenuation correction. J Nucl Med. 2010 Apr;51(4):575-80
  • Gould KL, Pan T, Loghin C, et al. Reducing radiation dose in rest-stress cardiac PET/CT by single poststress cine CT for attenuation correction: quantitative validation. J Nucl Med. 2008 May;49(5):738-45
  • Herzog BA, Husmann L, Buechel RR, et al. Rapid cardiac hybrid imaging with minimized radiation dose for accurate non-invasive assessment of ischemic coronary artery disease. Int J Cardiol. 2011 Nov 17;153(1):10-3
  • Liga R, Vontobel J, Rovai D, et al. Multicentre multi-device hybrid imaging study of coronary artery disease: results from the EValuation of INtegrated Cardiac Imaging for the Detection and Characterization of Ischaemic Heart Disease (EVINCI) hybrid imaging population. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2016 Mar 18. pii: jew038. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Kajander S, Joutsiniemi E, Saraste M, et al. Cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging accurately detects anatomically and functionally significant coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2010 Aug 10;122(6):603-13


Trägårdh E, Hesse B, Knuuti J, et al. Reporting nuclear cardiology: a joint position paper by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI). Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2015 Mar;16(3):272-9.

  • Herzog BA, Buechel RR, Katz R, Brueckner M, Husmann L, Burger IA, et al. Nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging with a cadmium-zinc-telluride detector technique: optimized protocol for scan time reduction. J Nucl Med. 2010;51:46-51
  • Ben-Haim S, Almukhailed O, Neill J, Slomka P, Allie R, Shiti D, et al. Clinical value of supine and upright myocardial perfusion imaging in obese patients using the D-SPECT camera. J Nucl Cardiol. 2014;21:478-85
  • Shaw LJ, Berman DS, Picard MH, et al. Comparative definitions for moderate-severe ischemia in stress nuclear, echocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014 Jun;7(6):593-604
  • Abidov A, Bax JJ, Hayes SW, et al. Integration of automatically measured transient ischemic dilation ratio into interpretation of adenosine stress myocardial perfusion SPECT for detection of severe and extensive CAD. J Nucl Med. 2004 Dec;45(12):1999-2007.
  • Berman DS, Kang X, Van Train KF, et al. Comparative prognostic value of automatic quantitative analysis versus semiquantitative visual analysis of exercise myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998 Dec;32(7):1987-95.
  • Karimi-Ashtiani S, Arsanjani R, Fish M, et al. Direct quantification of left ventricular motion and thickening changes using rest-stress myocardial perfusion SPECT. J Nucl Med. 2012 Sep;53(9):1392-400.
  • Gimelli A, Liga R, Pasanisi EM, et al. Evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function with a dedicated cadmium-zinc-telluride cardiac camera: comparison with Doppler echocardiography. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014 Sep;15(9):972-9
  • Schepis T, Gaemperli O, Treyer V, et al. Absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow with 13N-ammonia and 3-dimensional PET. J Nucl Med. 2007 Nov;48(11):1783-9
  • Nesterov SV, Deshayes E, Sciagrà R, et al. Quantification of myocardial blood flow in absolute terms using (82)Rb PET imaging: the RUBY-10 Study. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014 Nov;7(11):1119-27
  • Koepfli P, Hany TF, Wyss CA, et al. CT attenuation correction for myocardial perfusion quantification using a PET/CT hybrid scanner.J Nucl Med. 2004 Apr;45(4):537-42.
  • Lautamäki R, Schuleri KH, Sasano T, et al. Integration of infarct size, tissue perfusion, and metabolism by hybrid cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography: evaluation in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2009 Jul;2(4):299-305
  • Vitale GD, deKemp RA, Ruddy TD, et al. Myocardial glucose utilization and optimization of (18)F-FDG PET imaging in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and left ventricular dysfunction. J Nucl Med. 2001 Dec;42(12):1730-6
  • Gould KL, Yoshida K, Hess MJ, et al. Myocardial metabolism of fluorodeoxyglucose compared to cell membrane integrity for the potassium analogue rubidium-82 for assessing infarct size in man by PET. J Nucl Med. 1991 Jan;32(1):1-9
  • Gaemperli O, Schepis T, Kalff V, et al. Validation of a new cardiac image fusion software for three-dimensional integration of myocardial perfusion SPECT and stand-alone 64-slice CT angiography. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2007 Jul;34(7):1097-106
  • Namdar M, Hany TF , Koepfli P, et a Integrated PET/CT for the Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease: A Feasibility Study. J Nucl Med June. 2005; 46,930-935
  • Gaemperli O, Schepis T, Valenta I, et al. Cardiac Image Fusion from Stand-Alone SPECT and CT: Clinical Experience. J Nucl Med. 2007;48,696-703
  • Gaemperli O, Bengel FM, Kaufmann PA. Cardiac hybrid imaging. Eur Heart J. 2011 Sep;32(17):2100-8


Clinical Imaging Protocols

  • Henzlova MJ, Duvall WL, Einstein AJ, Travin MI, Verberne HJ. ASNC imaging guidelines for SPECT nuclear cardiology procedures: Stress, protocols, and tracers. J Nucl Cardiol. 2016 Feb 25. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Verberne HJ, Acampa W, Anagnostopoulos C, et al. EANM procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging with SPECT and SPECT/CT: 2015 revision. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2015 Nov;42(12):1929-40
  • Giorgetti A, Pingitore A, Favilli B, et al. Baseline/postnitrate tetrofosmin SPECT for myocardial viability assessment in patients with postischemic severe left ventricular dysfunction: new evidence from MRI. J Nucl Med. 2005 Aug;46(8):1285-93
  • Berman DS, Kang X, Tamarappoo B, Wolak A, Hayes SW, Nakazato R, et al. Stress thallium-201/rest technetium-99m sequential dual isotope high-speed myocardial perfusion imaging. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2009;2:273-82
  • Dilsizian V, Perrone-Filardi P, Arrighi JA, et al. Concordance and discordance between stress-redistribution-reinjection and rest-redistribution thallium imaging for assessing viable myocardium. Comparison with metabolic activity by positron emission tomography. Circulation. 1993 Sep;88(3):941-52
  • Nakazato R, Tamarappoo BK, Kang X, et al. Quantitative upright-supine high-speed SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging for detection of coronary artery disease: correlation with invasive coronary angiography. J Nucl Med. 2010 Nov;51(11):1724-31
  • Poulin MF, Alexander S, Doukky R. Prognostic implications of stress modality on mortality risk and cause of death in patients undergoing office-based SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging. J Nucl Cardiol. 2016 Apr;23(2):202-11
  • Souvatzoglou M, Bengel F, Busch R, et al. Attenuation correction in cardiac PET/CT with three different CT protocols: a comparison with conventional PET. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2007 Dec;34(12):1991-2000
  • Bucerius J, Hyafil F, Verberne HJ, et al. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) on PET imaging of atherosclerosis. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016 Apr;43(4):780-92
  • Johnson NP, Gould KL. Regadenoson versus dipyridamole hyperemia for cardiac PET imaging. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2015 Apr;8(4):438-47
  • Bax JJ, Veening MA, Visser FC, et al. Optimal metabolic conditions during fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose imaging; a comparative study using different protocols. Eur J Nucl Med. 1997 Jan;24(1):35-41.
  • Vasquez AF, Johnson NP, Gould KL. Variation in quantitative myocardial perfusion due to arterial input selection. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013
  • Mishra RK, Dorbala S, Logsetty G, et al. Quantitative relation between hemodynamic changes during intravenous adenosine infusion and the magnitude of coronary hyperemia: implications for myocardial perfusion imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Feb 15;45(4):553-8.
  • Fiechter M, Ghadri JR, Wolfrum M, et al. Downstream resource utilization following hybrid cardiac imaging with an integrated cadmium-zinc-telluride/64-slice CT device. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2012 Mar;39(3):430-6

Ischaemic Heart Disease

  • Acampa W, Gaemperli O, Gimelli A, et al. Role of risk stratification by SPECT, PET, and hybrid imaging in guiding management of stable patients with ischaemic heart disease: expert panel of the EANM cardiovascular committee and EACVI. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2015 Dec;16(12):1289-98
  •  Ben Bouallègue F, Roubille F, Lattuca B, et al. SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Reserve in Patients with Multivessel Coronary Disease: Correlation with Angiographic Findings and Invasive Fractional Flow Reserve Measurements. J Nucl Med. 2015 Nov;56(11):1712-7
  • Gould KL, Johnson NP, Bateman TM, et al. Anatomic versus physiologic assessment of coronary artery disease. Role of coronary flow reserve, fractional flow reserve, and positron emission tomography imaging in revascularization decision-making. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Oct 29;62(18):1639-53
  •  Gould KL. Does coronary flow trump coronary anatomy? JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2009 Aug;2(8):1009-23
  •  Johnson NP, Gould KL. Integrating noninvasive absolute flow, coronary flow reserve, and ischemic thresholds into a comprehensive map of physiological severity. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012 Apr;5(4):430-40
  • Sdringola S, Johnson NP, Narula J, et al. Serial quantitative assessment of absolute coronary flow and flow reserve with CAD progression to events. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013 Jun;6(6):735-8
  • Schaefer WM, Nowak B, Kaiser HJ, et al. Comparison of microsphere-equivalent blood flow (15O-water PET) and relative perfusion (99mTc-tetrofosmin SPECT) in myocardium showing metabolism-perfusion mismatch. J Nucl Med. 2003 Jan;44(1):33-9
  • Takx RA, Blomberg BA, El Aidi H, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of stress myocardial perfusion imaging compared to invasive coronary angiography with fractional flow reserve meta-analysis. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2015 Jan;8(1). pii: e002666. doi: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.114.002666
  • Jogiya R, Morton G, De Silva K, et al. Ischemic burden by 3-dimensional myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance: comparison with myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014 Jul;7(4):647-54
  • Meijboom WB, Van Mieghem CA, van Pelt N, et al. Comprehensive assessment of coronary artery stenoses: computed tomography coronary angiography versus conventional coronary angiography and correlation with fractional flow reserve in patients with stable angina. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Aug 19;52(8):636-43
  • Hachamovitch R, Nutter B, Hlatky MA, et al. Patient management after noninvasive cardiac imaging results from SPARC (Study of myocardial perfusion and coronary anatomy imaging roles in coronary artery disease). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Jan 31;59(5):462-74
  • Johnson NP, Gould KL Physiological basis for angina and ST-segment change PET-verified thresholds of quantitative stress myocardial perfusion and coronary flow reserve. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011 Sep;4(9):990-8.
  • Gimelli A, Bottai M, Giorgetti A, Genovesi D, Kusch A, Ripoli A, et al. Comparison between ultrafast and standard single-photon emission CT in patients with coronary artery disease: a pilot study. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011;4:51-8
  • Greenwood JP, Ripley DP, Berry C, McCann GP, Plein S, Bucciarelli-Ducci C, Dall'Armellina E, Prasad A, Bijsterveld P, Foley JR, Mangion K, Sculpher M, Walker S, Everett CC, Cairns DA, Sharples LD, Brown JM. Effect of care guided by cardiovascular magnetic resonance, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, or NICE guidelines on subsequent unnecessary angiography rates: The CE-MARC 2 randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2016;316:1051-60.
  • Uren NG, Marraccini P, Gistri R, et al. Altered coronary vasodilator reserve and metabolism in myocardium subtended by normal arteries in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993 Sep;22(3):650-8
  • Rosen SD, Paulesu E, Nihoyannopoulos P, et al. Silent ischemia as a central problem: regional brain activation compared in silent and painful myocardial ischemia. Ann Intern Med. 1996 Jun 1;124(11):939-49
  • Abraham A, Nichol G, Williams KA, et al. 18F-FDG PET imaging of myocardial viability in an experienced center with access to 18F-FDG and integration with clinical management teams: the Ottawa-FIVE substudy of the PARR 2 trial. J Nucl Med. 2010 Apr;51(4):567-74.
  • Parker MW, Iskandar A, Limone B, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of cardiac positron emission tomography versus single photon emission computed tomography for coronary artery disease: a bivariate meta-analysis. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012 Nov;5(6):700-7
  • Gould KL, Nakagawa Y, Nakagawa K, et al. Frequency and clinical implications of fluid dynamically significant diffuse coronary artery disease manifest as graded, longitudinal, base-to-apex myocardial perfusion abnormalities by noninvasive positron emission tomography. Circulation. 2000 Apr 25;101(16):1931-9
  • Johnson NP, Gould KL. Clinical evaluation of a new concept: resting myocardial perfusion heterogeneity quantified by markovian analysis of PET identifies coronary microvascular dysfunction and early atherosclerosis in 1,034 subjects. J Nucl Med. 2005 Sep;46(9):1427-37.
  • Lee JM, Kim CH, Koo BK, Hwang D, Park J, Zhang J, Tong Y, Jeon KH, Bang JI, Suh M, Paeng JC, Cheon GJ, Na SH, Ahn JM, Park SJ, Kim HS. Integrated myocardial perfusion imaging diagnostics improve detection of functionally significant coronary artery stenosis by 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2016;9. doi: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.116.004768.
  • Husmann L, Herzog BA, Gaemperli O, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography coronary angiography and evaluation of stress-only single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography hybrid imaging: comparison of prospective electrocardiogram-triggering vs. retrospective gating. Eur Heart J. 2009 Mar;30(5):600-7
  • Javadi MS, Lautamäki R, Merrill J, et al. Definition of vascular territories on myocardial perfusion images by integration with true coronary anatomy: a hybrid PET/CT analysis. J Nucl Med. 2010 Feb;51(2):198-203
  • Kajander S, Joutsiniemi E, Saraste M, et al. Cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging accurately detects anatomically and functionally significant coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2010 Aug 10;122(6):603-13
  • Pazhenkottil AP, Nkoulou RN, Ghadri JR, et al. Impact of cardiac hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging on choice of treatment strategy in coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J. 2011 Nov;32(22):2824-9
  • Pazhenkottil AP, Nkoulou RN, Ghadri JR, et al. Prognostic value of cardiac hybrid imaging integrating single-photon emission computed tomography with coronary computed tomography angiography. Eur Heart J. 2011 Jun;32(12):1465-71
  • Liga R, Vontobel J, Rovai D, et al. Multicentre multi-device hybrid imaging study of coronary artery disease: results from the EValuation of INtegrated Cardiac Imaging for the Detection and Characterization of Ischaemic Heart Disease (EVINCI) hybrid imaging population. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2016 Mar 18. pii: jew038. [Epub ahead of print]

Cardiomyopathies, Other

  • Henning H, Schelbert H, Crawford MH, et al. Left ventricular performance assessed by radionuclide angiocardiography and echocardiography in patients with previous myocardial infarction. Circulation. 1975 Dec;52(6):1069-75.
  • Fallavollita JA, Heavey BM, Luisi AJ Jr, et al. Regional myocardial sympathetic denervation predicts the risk of sudden cardiac arrest in ischemic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Jan 21;63(2):141-9
  • Hachamovitch R, Nutter B, Menon V, et al. Predicting Risk Versus Predicting Potential Survival Benefit Using 123I-mIBG Imaging in Patients With Systolic Dysfunction Eligible for Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator Implantation: Analysis of Data From the Prospective ADMIRE-HF Study. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2015 Dec;8(12). pii: e003110. doi: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.114.003110.
  • Hutt DF, Quigley AM, Page J, et al. Utility and limitations of 3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid scintigraphy in systemicamyloidosis. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014 Nov;15(11):1289-98
  • Sorajja P, Chareonthaitawee P, Ommen SR, et al. Prognostic utility of single-photon emission computed tomography in adult patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am Heart J. 2006 Feb;151(2):426-35
  • Marcassa C, Galli M, Campini R, et al. Differential systolic and diastolic effects of beta-adrenergic stimulation in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction: a radionuclide ventriculographic study. J Nucl Cardiol. 2003 Jan-Feb;10(1):46-50
  • Clements IP, Kelkar AA, Garcia EV, Butler J, Chen J, Folks R, Jacobson AF. Prognostic significance of (123)I-mIBG SPECT myocardial imaging in heart failure: differences between patients with ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart failure. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2016;17:384-90.
  • Hachamovitch R, Nutter B, Menon V, Cerqueira MD. Predicting risk versus predicting potential survival benefit using 123I-mIBG imaging in patients with systolic dysfunction eligible for implantable cardiac defibrillator implantation: analysis of data from the prospective ADMIRE-HF study. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2015;8. doi: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.114.003110.
  • Jacobson AF, Senior R, Cerqueira MD, Wong ND, Thomas GS, Lopez VA, Agostini D, Weiland F, Chandna H, Narula J. Myocardial iodine-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine imaging and cardiac events in heart failure. Results of the prospective ADMIRE-HF (AdreView Myocardial Imaging for Risk Evaluation in Heart Failure) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;55:2212-21.
  • Christensen TE, Bang LE, Holmvang L, Skovgaard DC, Oturai DB, Soholm H, Thomsen JH, Andersson HB, Ghotbi AA, Ihlemann N, Kjaer A, Hasbak P. (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy in the subacute state of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2016;9:982-90.
  • Mc Ardle BA, Birnie DH, Klein R, et al. Is there an association between clinical presentation and the location and extent of myocardial involvement of cardiac sarcoidosis as assessed by ¹⁸F- fluorodoexyglucose positron emission tomography? Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013 Sep;6(5):617-26
  • Neglia D, Michelassi C, Trivieri MG, et al. Prognostic role of myocardial blood flow impairment in idiopathic left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation. 2002 Jan 15;105(2):186-93
  • Masci PG, Marinelli M, Piacenti M, et al. Myocardial structural, perfusion, and metabolic correlates of left bundle branch block mechanical derangement in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: a tagged cardiac magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography study. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010 Jul;3(4):482-90
  • Schindler TH, Nitzsche EU, Schelbert HR, et al. Positron emission tomography-measured abnormal responses of myocardial blood flow to sympathetic stimulation are associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular events. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 May 3;45(9):1505-12
  • Dorbala S, Vangala D, Bruyere J Jr, et al. Coronary microvascular dysfunction is related to abnormalities in myocardial structure and function in cardiac amyloidosis. JACC Heart Fail. 2014 Aug;2(4):358-67
  • Timmer SA, Knaapen P. Coronary microvascular function, myocardial metabolism, and energetics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: insights from positron emission tomography. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013 Feb;14(2):95-101
  • Mc Ardle B, Shukla T, Nichol G, deKemp RA, Bernick J, Guo A, Lim SP, Davies RA, Haddad H, Duchesne L, Hendry P, Masters R, Ross H, Freeman M, Gulenchyn K, Racine N, Humen D, Benard F, Ruddy TD, Chow BJ, Mielniczuk L, DaSilva JN, Garrard L, Wells GA, Beanlands RS. Long-term follow-up of outcomes with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging-assisted management of patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction secondary to coronary disease. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2016;9. doi: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.115.004331.
  • Rischpler C, Nekolla SG, Dregely I, et al. Hybrid PET/MR imaging of the heart: potential, initial experiences, and future prospects. J Nucl Med. 2013 Mar;54(3):402-15
  • Wada K, Niitsuma T, Yamaki T, et al. Simultaneous cardiac imaging to detect inflammation and scar tissue with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/MRI in cardiac sarcoidosis. J Nucl Cardiol. 2015 Dec 1. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Bulluck H, White SK, Fröhlich GM, et al. Quantifying the Area at Risk in Reperfused ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Using Hybrid Cardiac Positron Emission Tomography-Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2016 Mar;9(3):e003900. doi: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.115.003900.
  • Caobelli F, Wollenweber T, Bavendiek U, Kuhn C, Schutze C, Geworski L, Thackeray JT, Bauersachs J, Haverich A, Bengel FM. Simultaneous dual-isotope solid-state detector SPECT for improved tracking of white blood cells in suspected endocarditis. Eur Heart J 2016 July 28. pii: ehw231. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Rischpler C, Dirschinger RJ, Nekolla SG, Kossmann H, Nicolosi S, Hanus F, van MS, Kunze KP, Meinicke A, Gotze K, Kastrati A, Langwieser N, Ibrahim T, Nahrendorf M, Schwaiger M, Laugwitz KL. Prospective evaluation of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in postischemic myocardium by simultaneous positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging as a prognostic marker of functional outcome. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2016;9:e004316. doi: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.115.004316.
  • Bala G, Blykers A, Xavier C, Descamps B, Broisat A, Ghezzi C, Fagret D, Van CG, Caveliers V, Vanhove C, Lahoutte T, Droogmans S, Cosyns B, Devoogdt N, Hernot S. Targeting of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by 18F-labelled nanobodies for PET/CT imaging of inflamed atherosclerotic plaques. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2016;17:1001-8.

Cardiac CT

Physics, quality and safety, radiation dose

  • Abbara S. et al. SCCT guidelines for performance of coronary computed tomographic angiography: a report of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2009 May-Jun;3(3):190-204
  • Einstein AJ, Henzlova MJ, Rajagopalan S. Estimating risk of cancer associated with radiation exposure from 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography. JAMA, 2007;298:317-23.
  • Husmann L et al. Feasibility of low-dose coronary CT angiography: first experience with prospective ECG-gating. Eur Heart J. 2008 Jan;29(2):191-7.
  • Achenbach S, Marwan M, Ropers D, et al. Coronary computed tomography angiography with a consistent dose below 1 mSv using prospectively electrocardiogram-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition. Eur Heart J, 2010;31:340-6.
  • Halliburton SS et al. SCCT guidelines on radiation dose and dose-optimization strategies in cardiovascular CT. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2011 Jul-Aug;5(4):198-224.
  • Buechel RR, Husmann L, Herzog BA, et al. Low-dose computed tomography coronary angiography with prospective electrocardiogram triggering: feasibility in a large population. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2011;57-332-6.
  • Leipsic J et al. SCCT guidelines for the interpretation and reporting of coronary CT angiography: a report of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2014 Sep-Oct;8(5):342-58.
  • Mahesh M, Cody DD Physics of cardiac imaging with multiple-row detector CT. Radiographics. 2007 Sep-Oct;27(5):1495-509. Review.  
  • Kalisz K, Buethe J, Saboo SS, Abbara S, Halliburton S, Rajiah P. Artifacts at Cardiac CT: Physics and Solutions. Radiographics. 2016 Nov-Dec;36(7):2064-2083.

Coronary CT angiography

  • Leber AW, Knez A, von Ziegler F, et al. Quantification of obstructive and nonobstructive coronary lesions by 64-slice computed tomography – A comparative study with quantitative coronar angiography and intravascular ultrasound, J Am Coll Cardiol, 2005;46:147-54.
  • Min JK, Shaw LJ, Devereux RB, et al. Prognostic value of multidetector coronary computed tomographic angiography for prediction of all-cause mortality, J Am Coll Cardiol, 2007 ;50 :1161-70.
  • Budoff MJ, Dowe D, Jollis JG, et al. Diagnostic performance of 64-multidetector row coronary computed tomographic angiography for evaluation of coronary artery stenosis in individuals without known coronary artery disease: results from the prospective multicenter ACCURACY (Assessment by Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography of Individuals Undergoing Invasive Coronary Angiography) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2008;52:1724-32.
  • Min JK, Dunning A, Lin FY, et al. Age- and Sex-Related Differences in All-Cause Mortality Risk Based on Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Findings Results From the International Multicenter CONFIRM (Coronary CT Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcomes: An International Multicenter Registry) of 23,854 Patients Without Known Coronary Artery Disease. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2011;58:849-60.
  • Shaw LJ, Hausleiter J, Achenbach S, et al. Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography as a Gatekeeper to Invasive Diagnostic and Surgical Procedures. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2012;60:2103-14.
  • Goehler A, Lee H, Gazelle GS et al. Coronary CT angiography versus standard evaluation in acute chest pain. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 26;367(4):299-308.
  • Muhlestein JB, Lappé DL, Lima JA, et al. Effect of screening for coronary artery disease using CT angiography on mortality and cardiac events in high-risk patients with diabetes : the FACTOR-64 randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 2014;312:2234-43.
  • Douglas PS, Hofmann U, Lee KL, et al. Outcomes of anatomical versus functional testing for coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med, 2015;372:1291-300.
  • SCOT-HEART investigators. CT coronary angiography in patients with suspected angina due to coronary heart disease (SCOT-HEART: an open-label, parallel-group, multicentre trial. Lancet, 2015;385:2383-91.
  • Cho I, Chang HJ, O Harthaigh B et al. Incremental prognostic utility of coronary CT angiography for asymptomatic patients based upon extent and severity of coronary artery calcium: results from the COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes InteRnational Multicenter (CONFIRM) study. Eur Heart J. 2015 Feb 21;36(8):501-8.
  • Clerc OF, Possner M, Maire R, Liga R, Fuchs TA, Stehli J, Vontobel J, Mikulicic F, Gräni C, Benz DC, Lüscher TF, Herzog BA, Buechel RR, Kaufmann PA, Gaemperli O. Association of left bundle branch block with obstructive coronary artery disease on coronary CT angiography: a case-control study. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2016 Jul;17(7):765-71
  • Dedic A, Lubbers MM, Schaap J, Lammers J, Lamfers EJ, Rensing BJ, Braam RL, Nathoe HM, Post JC, Nielen T, Beelen D, le Cocq d'Armandville MC, Rood PP, Schultz CJ, Moelker A, Ouhlous M, Boersma E, Nieman K. Coronary CT angiography for suspected ACS in the era of high-sensitivity troponins: randomized multicenter study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016;67:16-26.
  • Mark DB, Anstrom KJ, Sheng S, Baloch KN, Daniels MR, Hoffmann U, Patel MR, Cooper LS, Lee KL, Douglas PS. Quality-of-life outcomes with anatomic versus functional diagnostic testing strategies in symptomatic patients with suspected coronary artery disease: results from the PROMISE randomized trial. Circulation 2016;133:1995-2007.
  • Williams MC et al. Use of Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography to Guide Management of Patients With Coronary Disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Apr 19;67(15):1759-68. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.02.026.

Coronary calcium imaging

  • Hoff JA et al. Age and gender distributions of coronary artery calcium detected by electron beam tomography in 35,246 adults. Am J Cardiol. 2001 Jun 15;87(12):1335-9.
  • Rozanski A et al. Clinical outcomes after both coronary calcium scanning and exercise myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Mar 27;49(12):1352-61.
  • Budoff MJ et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. Long-term prognosis associated with coronary calcification: observations from a registry of 25,253 patients. 2007 May 8;49(18):1860-70.
  • Detrano R et al. Coronary calcium as a predictor of coronary events in four racial or ethnic groups. N Engl J Med. 2008 Mar 27;358(13):1336-45.
  • Pletcher MJ et al. Interpretation of the coronary artery calcium score in combination with conventional cardiovascular risk factors: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Circulation. 2013 Sep 3;128(10):1076-84.
  • Shaw LJ et al. Long-Term Prognosis After Coronary Artery Calcification Testing in Asymptomatic Patients: A Cohort Study. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Jul 7;163(1):14-21.
  • Lubbers M, Dedic A, Coenen A, Galema T, Akkerhuis J, Bruning T, Krenning B, Musters P, Ouhlous M, Liem A, Niezen A, Hunink M, de Feijter P, Nieman K. Calcium imaging and selective computed tomography angiography in comparison to functional testing for suspected coronary artery disease: the multicentre, randomized CRESCENT trial. Eur Heart J. 2016 Apr 14;37(15):1232-43. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehv700. Epub 2016 Jan 7.
  • Yeboah J, Young R, McClelland RL, Delaney JC, Polonsky TS, Dawood FZ, Blaha MJ, Miedema MD, Sibley CT, Carr JJ, Burke GL, Goff DC, Jr., Psaty BM, Greenland P, Herrington DM. Utility of nontraditional risk markers in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk assessment. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016 January 19;67:139-47.
  • Nasir K, Bittencourt MS, Blaha MJ, Blankstein R, Agatson AS, Rivera JJ, Miedema MD, Sibley CT, Shaw LJ, Blumenthal RS, Budoff MJ, Krumholz HM. Implications of coronary artery calcium testing among statin candidates according to American College Of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol management guidelines: MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). J Am Coll Cardiol 2015;66:1657-68.

Atherosclerotic plaque imaging

  • Schroeder S, Kopp AF, Baumbach A, et al. Noninvasive detection and evaluation of atherosclerotic coronary plaques with multislice computed tomography. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2001;37:1430-5.
  • Greenland P, LaBree L, Azen SP, et al. Coronary artery calcium score combined with Framingham score for risk prediction in asymptomatic individuals. JAMA, 2004;291:210-5.
  • Hoffmann U, Moselewski F, Nieman K, et al. Noninvasive assessment of plaque morphology and composition in culprit and stable lesions in acute coronary syndrome and stable lesions in stable angina by multidetector computed tomography. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2006;47:1655-62.
  • Motoyama S, Kondo T, Sarai M, et al. Multislice computed tomographic characteristics of coronary lesions in acute coronary syndromes. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2007;50:319-26.
  • Motoyama S, Sarai M, Harigaya H, et al. Computed tomographic angiography characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques subsequently resulting in acute coronary syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2009;54:49-57.
  • Vancraeynest D et al. Imaging the vulnerable plaque. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 May 17;57(20):1961-79.
  • Gaur S, Øvrehus KA, Dey D et al. Coronary plaque quantification and fractional flow reserve by coronary computed tomography angiography identify ischaemia-causing lesions. Eur Heart J. 2016 Apr 14;37(15):1220-7.
  • Motoyama S, Ito H, Sarai M, Kondo T, Kawai H, Nagahara Y, Harigaya H, Kan S, Anno H, Takahashi H, Naruse H, Ishii J, Hecht H, Shaw LJ, Ozaki Y, Narula J. Plaque Characterization by Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography and the Likelihood of Acute Coronary Events in Mid-Term Follow-Up. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Jul 28;66(4):337-46..
  • Feuchtner G, Kerber J, Burghard P, Dichtl W, Friedrich G, Bonaros N, Plank F. The high-risk criteria low-attenuation plaque <60 HU and the napkin-ring sign are the most powerful predictors of MACE: a long-term follow-up study. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2016 Aug 7. pii: jew167. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Maurovich-Horvat P, Ferencik M, Voros S, Merkely B, Hoffmann U. Comprehensive plaque assessment by coronary CT angiography. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2014 Jul;11(7):390-402. doi: 10.1038/nrcardio.2014.60. Review.

Congenital heart disease and myocardial imaging

  • Kim SY, Seo JB, Do K-HH et al. Coronary artery anomalies: classification and ECG-gated multi-detector row CT findings with angiographic correlation. Radiographics 2006;26:317.
  • Camarda J, Berger S. Coronary artery abnormalities and sudden cardiac death. Pediatr Cardiol 2012;33:434-8.
  • Ghadri JR, Kazakauskaite E, Braunschweig S et al. Congenital coronary anomalies detected by coronary computed tomography compared to invasive coronary angiography. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2014 Jan 3;14:81.
  • Gräni C, Benz DC, Schmied C et al. Hybrid CCTA/SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging findings in patients with anomalous origin of coronary arteries from the opposite sinus and suspected concomitant coronary artery disease. J Nucl Cardiol. 2015 Dec 28. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Gebhard C, Fuchs TA, Stehli J et al. Coronary dominance and prognosis in patients undergoing coronary computed tomographic angiography: results from the CONFIRM (COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter) registry. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2015;16:853-62.
  • Nasis A, Machado C, Cameron JD et al. Anatomic characteristics and outcome of adults with coronary arteries arising from an anomalous location detected with coronary computed tomography angiography. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2015;31:181-91.
  • Clayton B, Roobottom C, Morgan-Hughes G. Assessment of the myocardium with cardiac computed tomography. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014 Jun;15(6):603-9.

Functional imaging

  • Ko BS, Cameron JD, Meredith IT et al. Computed tomography stress myocardial perfusion imaging in patients considered for revascularization: a comparison with fractional flow reserve. Eur Heart J. 2012 Jan;33(1):67-77.
  • Norgaard BL, Leipsic J, Gaur S, et al. Diagnostic performance of noninvasive fractional flow reserve derived from coronary computed tomography angiography in suspected coronary artery disease: the NXT trial. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2014;63:1145-55.
  • Wong DT, Ko BS, Cameron JD, et al. Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of combined assessment using adenosine stress computed tomography perfusion + computed tomography with transluminal attenuation gradient + computed tomography angiography against invasive fractional flow reserve. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2014;63:1904-12.
  • Rossi A, Dharampal A, Wragg A et al. Diagnostic performance of hyperaemic myocardial blood flow index obtained by dynamic computed tomography: does it predict functionally significant coronary lesions? Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014 Jan;15(1):85-94.
  • George RT, Mehra VC, Chen MY, et al. Myocardial CT perfusion imaging and SPECT for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease: a head-to-head comparison from the CORE320 multi-center diagnostic performance study. Radiology, 2014;272:407-16.
  • Douglas PS, Pontone G, Hlatky MA, et al. Clinical outcomes of fractional flow reserve by computed tomographic angiography-guided diagnostic strategies vs. usual care in patients with suspected coronary artery disease: the prospective longitudinal trial of FFRct: outcome and resource impacts study. Eur Heart J, 2015;36:3359-67.
  • Neglia D, Rovai D, Caselli C et al. Detection of significant coronary artery disease by noninvasive anatomical and functional imaging. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2015 Mar;8(3). pii: e002179.
  • Douglas PS, De BB, Pontone G, Patel MR, Norgaard BL, Byrne RA, Curzen N, Purcell I, Gutberlet M, Rioufol G, Hink U, Schuchlenz HW, Feuchtner G, Gilard M, Andreini D, Jensen JM, Hadamitzky M, Chiswell K, Cyr D, Wilk A, Wang F, Rogers C, Hlatky MA. 1-year outcomes of FFRct-guided care in patients with suspected coronary disease: the PLATFORM study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016;68:435-45.

Valvular heart disease

  • Leipsic J, Gurvitch R, Labounty TM et al. Multidetector computed tomography in transcatheter aortic valve implantation. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011 Apr;4(4):416-29.
  • Achenbach S1, Delgado V, Hausleiter J et al. SCCT expert consensus document on computed tomography imaging before transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)/transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2012 Nov-Dec;6(6):366-80.
  • Salgado RA, Leipsic JA, Shivalkar B et al. Preprocedural CT evaluation of transcatheter aortic valve replacement: what the radiologist needs to know. Radiographics. 2014 Oct;34(6):1491-514.
  • Naoum C, Leipsic J, Cheung A et al. Mitral Annular Dimensions and Geometry in Patients With Functional Mitral Regurgitation and Mitral Valve Prolapse: Implications for Transcatheter Mitral Valve Implantation. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2016 Mar;9(3):269-80.
  • Gregor Pache, Simon Schoechlin, Philipp Blanke, Stephan Dorfs, Nikolaus Jander, Chesnal D. Arepalli, Michael Gick, Heinz-Joachim Buettner, Jonathon Leipsic, Mathias Langer, Franz-Josef Neumann, Philipp Ruile. Early hypo-attenuated leaflet thickening in balloon-expandable transcatheter aortic heart valves. Eur Heart J 2016;37:2263-71
  • Fukushima K, Fukushima N, Kato K, Ejima K, Sato H, Fukushima K, Saito C, Hayashi K, Arai K, Manaka T, Ashihara K, Shoda M, Hagiwara N. Correlation between left atrial appendage morphology and flow velocity in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2016 Jan;17(1):59-66.
  • Gunduz S, Ozkan M, Kalcik M, Gursoy OM, Astarcioglu MA, Karakoyun S, Aykan AC, Biteker M, Gokdeniz T, Kaya H, Yesin M, Duran NE, Sevinc D, Guneysu T. Sixty-four-section cardiac computed tomography in mechanical prosthetic heart valve dysfunction: thrombus or pannus. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2015;8. doi: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.115.003246.
  • Suh YJ, Hong GR, Han K, Im DJ, Chang S, Hong YJ, Lee HJ, Hur J, Choi BW, Chang BC, Shim CY, Kim YJ. Assessment of mitral paravalvular leakage after mitral valve replacement using cardiac computed tomography: comparison with surgical findings. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2016;9. doi: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.115.004153.

Authoritative Textbooks

  • Nieman K, Gaemperli O, Lancellotti P, Plein S. Advanced Cardiac Imaging, 1st Edition (2015). Woodhead Publishing