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Report prepared by Assoc. Prof. Gabriel Kamensky with assistance and advice from:
National CVD Prevention Coordinator for Slovakia:
Assoc. Prof. , MD, PhD, FESC
Non-invasive and general cardiologist
Vth Internal Clinic, University Hospital Bratislava, The Department of Non-invasive Cardiovascular Diagnostics, Bratislava, Slovakia
The health care system in Slovakia is based on universal coverage, compulsory health insurance, a basic benefit package and a competitive insurance model with selective contracting and flexible pricing. Health care, with exceptions, is provided to insured for free through benefits-in-kind. At the end of 2013, there were registered 13 022 healthcare establishments in the operation of 11 904 healthcare providers. The outpatient healthcare establishments accounted for 78 %, institutional healthcare establishments for 1.4 %. The healthcare in these establishments was provided by 24 049.08 work positions of independent healthcare professionals.
Total health spending accounted for 8.1% of gross domestic product (GDP) in the Slovak Republic in 2012, lower than the average of 9.3% in OECD countries.
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The average life span in Slovakia is 72.5 years for men (about 5 years lower than the EU) and 79,9 years for women (about 3,20 years lower compared to the EU average). The sex-based difference in the average life span has changed over the last 10 years about 2,5 vs. 2,2 years. The age-standardised death rate (SDR) for cardiovascular diseases has decreased since 2004 by 26%. Nevertheless, it is still 50% higher compared to the average SDR in the EU (58% higher in men and 43% higher in women).
Table 1: The prevalence of the main CV risk factors in Slovakia (2012)
The main authorities acting in the prevention area are:
First stage of rehabilitation starts from the rule in the cardiology or heart surgery departments. The second stage is usually provided by specialised rehabilitation centres. Some of them are hospital-based, but most patients participate in 3-4 weeks rehabilitation programmes consisting of group-based therapies (exercise training, relaxation and stress management training, education therapy and lifestyle change therapy) usually in specialised cardiac rehabilitation centres. There are 7 active cardiac rehabilitation centres nowadays in Slovakia.
Approximately 60 % of all patients undergoing heart surgery or suffering from an acute coronary syndrome participate in a second stage of rehabilitation programme (up till 3 months post-event). In contrast, 74% of the patients, mostly those after revascularisation on peripheral arteries, participate in the third stage of rehabilitation.
Note: The content of this article reflects the personal opinion of the author/s and is not necessarily the official position of the European Society of Cardiology.
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