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How to evaluate a female athlete

Silvia Castelletti and Sabiha Gati, Sports Cardiology Section members, answer key questions

The effect of exercise on cardiac structure and function differs in female and male athletes. Despite an increased number of females participating in sports, data on our sex are limited.

It is important to be aware of the female-specific cardiac adaptations to exercise to distinguish pathology from athletic remodelling, to prevent potential tragedies or unnecessary sports disqualification.

Rehabilitation and Sports Cardiology