- 35-year-old Caucasian female football player underwent pre-participation cardiovascular screening.
- She exercised for 10 hours per week.
- She did not report any sinister cardiac symptoms, apart from feeling slightly more breathless than her teammates.
- She was not on any regular medications and there was no family history of premature sudden cardiac death or cardiomyopathy.
- Clinical examination was unremarkable. Her 12-lead ECG is presented below.
Test your knowledge
Interested in learning more?
Access the ESC e-learning platform and discover the EAPC Sports Cardiology online courses.
Not yet an EAPC member?
Note: The views and opinions expressed on this page are those of the author and may not be accepted by others. While every attempt is made to keep the information up to date, there is always going to be a lag in updating information. The reader is encouraged to read this in conjunction with appropriate ESC Guidelines. The material on this page is for educational purposes and is not for use as a definitive management strategy in the care of patients. Quiz material in the site are only examples and do not guarantee outcomes from formal examinations.
- [*1] Recommendations for interpretation of 12-lead electrocardiogram in the athlete.
Corrado D, Pelliccia A, Heidbuchel H, Sharma S, Link M, Basso C, Biffi A, Buja G, Delise P, Gussac I, Anastasakis A, Borjesson M, Bjornstad HH, Carre F, Deligiannis A, Dugmore D, Fagard R, Hoogsteen J, Mellwig KP, Panhuyzen-Goedkoop N, Solberg E, Vanhees L, Drezner J, Estes NA, 3rd, Iliceto S, Maron BJ, Peidro R, Schwartz PJ, Stein R, Thiene G, Zeppilli P, McKenna WJ. Eur Heart J. 2010;31:243-259
- [*2] Should axis deviation or atrial enlargement be categorised as abnormal in young athletes? The athlete's electrocardiogram: Time for re-appraisal of markers of pathology.
Gati S, Sheikh N, Ghani S, Zaidi A, Wilson M, Raju H, Cox A, Reed M, Papadakis M, Sharma S.
Eur Heart J. 2013
- [*3] Comparison of electrocardiographic criteria for the detection of cardiac abnormalities in elite black and white athletes.
Sheikh N, Papadakis M, Ghani S, Zaidi A, Gati S, Adami PE, Carre F, Schnell F, Wilson M, Avila P, McKenna W, Sharma S.
- [4*] The prevalence, distribution, and clinical outcomes of electrocardiographic repolarization patterns in male athletes of African/Afro-Caribbean origin.
Papadakis M, Carre F, Kervio G, Rawlins J, Panoulas VF, Chandra N, Basavarajaiah S, Carby L, Fonseca T, Sharma S.
Eur Heart J. 2011
- [5*] Increased left ventricular trabeculation in highly trained athletes: Do we need more stringent criteria for the diagnosis of left ventricular non-compaction in athletes?
Gati S, Chandra N, Bennett RL, Reed M, Kervio G, Panoulas VF, Ghani S, Sheikh N, Zaidi A, Wilson M, Papadakis M, Carre F, Sharma S. Heart. 2013;99:401-408
- [6*] Left ventricular non-compaction revisited: A distinct phenotype with genetic heterogeneity?
Oechslin E, Jenni R. Eur Heart J. 2011;32:1446-1456
- [7*] Isolated non compaction of left ventricular myocardium. A study of eight cases.
Chin TK, Perloff JK, Williams RG, Jue K, Mohrmann R. Circulation. 1990;82:507-513
- [8*] Isolated non compaction of the myocardium in adults.
Ritter M, Oechslin E, Sutsch G, Attenhofer C, Schneider J, Jenni R.Mayo Clin Proc. 1997;72:26-31
- [9*] Left ventricular non-compaction: Insights from cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.
Petersen SE, Selvanayagam JB, Wiesmann F, Robson MD, Francis JM, Anderson RH, Watkins H, Neubauer S. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;46:101-105
- [*10] Measurement of trabeculated left ventricular mass using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of left ventricular non-compaction.
Jacquier A, Thuny F, Jop B, Giorgi R, Cohen F, Gaubert JY, Vidal V, Bartoli JM, Habib G, Moulin G. .Eur Heart J. 2010;31:1098-1104
- [*11] Echocardiographic and pathoanatomical characteristics of isolated left ventricular non-compaction: A step towards classification as a distinct cardiomyopathy.
Jenni R, Oechslin E, Schneider J, Attenhofer Jost C, Kaufmann PA. Heart. 2001;86:666-671
Notes to editor
Dr Sabiha Gati, Cardiac Imaging Fellow, St George’s University of London
Dr Michael Papadakis, Lecturer in Cardiology, St George’s University of London
Prof Sanjay Sharma, Professor of Clinical Cardiology, St George’s University of London