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Diagnostic conundrums in Sports Cardiology

Dr Michael Papadakis, Sports Cardiology Quiz Section Editor

The case


  • 35-year-old Caucasian female football player underwent pre-participation cardiovascular screening.
  • She exercised for 10 hours per week.
  • She did not report any sinister cardiac symptoms, apart from feeling slightly more breathless than her teammates.
  • She was not on any regular medications and there was no family history of premature sudden cardiac death or cardiomyopathy.
  • Clinical examination was unremarkable. Her 12-lead ECG is presented below.


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Note: The views and opinions expressed on this page are those of the author and may not be accepted by others. While every attempt is made to keep the information up to date, there is always going to be a lag in updating information. The reader is encouraged to read this in conjunction with appropriate ESC Guidelines. The material on this page is for educational purposes and is not for use as a definitive management strategy in the care of patients. Quiz material in the site are only examples and do not guarantee outcomes from formal examinations.


Notes to editor

Dr Sabiha Gati, Cardiac Imaging Fellow, St George’s University of London
Dr Michael Papadakis, Lecturer in Cardiology, St George’s University of London
Prof Sanjay Sharma, Professor of Clinical Cardiology, St George’s University of London