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Diagnosis and Management of Syncope

Pocket Guidelines

Syncope and Bradycardia
Arrhythmias and Device Therapy

Publication Date: 2018

Chairperson: Michele Brignole and

Co-chairperson: Angel Moya


The Pocket Guidelines Will be available at the ESC Congress in Munich 2018

Order Pocket Guidelines

Table of Contents

1   Definitions

2   Classification and pathophysiology of syncope and TLOCs

3   The initial evaluation

4    Management of syncope in the emergency department based on risk stratification

5    Should the patient be admitted to hospital?

6    Diagnosis unclear after the initial evaluation

7   Carotid sinus massage

8   Active standing

9   Tilt testing

10  Basic autonomic function tests

11  Electrocardiographic monitoring (non-invasive and invasive)

12  Video recording in suspected syncope

13  Electrophysiological study

14  Echocardiography

15  Exercise stress testing

16  Coronary angiography

17  General principles of treatment of syncope

18  Treatment of reflex syncope

19  Cardiac pacing in patients with reflex syncope.

20  Treatment of orthostatic hypotension and orthostatic intolerance syndromes

21  Treatment of syncope due to intrinsic sinoatrial or atrioventricular conduction system disease

22  Treatment of syncope due to intrinsic cardiac tachyarrhythmias

23  Treatment of syncope secondary to structural cardiac, cardiopulmonary, and great vessel disease

24  Treatment of unexplained syncope in patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death

25  Syncope in patients with comorbidity and frailty

26  Psychogenic transient loss of consciousness and its evaluation

27  Neurological causes and mimics of syncope

28  Syncope (transient loss of consciousness) management unit