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Pocket Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Management of Syncope

ESC Pocket Guidelines

Syncope and Bradycardia
Arrhythmias and Device Therapy

Publication Date: 2018

Chairperson: Michele Brignole and

Co-Chairperson: Angel Moya


The ESC Pocket Guidelines will be available at the ESC Congress, Munich 2018.

Order Pocket Guidelines

Table of Contents

1.   Definitions

2.   Classification and Pathophysiology of Syncope and TLOCs

3.   The Initial Evaluation

4.    Management of Syncope in the Emergency Department Based on Risk Stratification

5.    Should the Patient Be Admitted to Hospital?

6.    Diagnosis Unclear After the Initial Evaluation

7.   Carotid Sinus Massage

8.   Active Standing

9.   Tilt Testing

10.  Basic Autonomic Function Tests

11.  Electrocardiographic Monitoring (non-invasive and invasive)

12.  Video Recording in Suspected Syncope

13.  Electrophysiological Study

14.  Echocardiography

15.  Exercise Stress Testing

16.  Coronary Angiography

17.  General Principles of Treatment of Syncope

18.  Treatment of Reflex Syncope

19.  Cardiac Pacing in Patients with Reflex Syncope.

20.  Treatment of Orthostatic Hypotension and Orthostatic Intolerance Syndromes

21.  Treatment of Syncope due to Intrinsic Sinoatrial or Atrioventricular Conduction System Disease

22.  Treatment of Syncope due to Intrinsic Cardiac Tachyarrhythmias

23.  Treatment of Syncope Secondary to Structural Cardiac, Cardiopulmonary, and Great Vessel Disease

24.  Treatment of Unexplained Syncope in Patients at High Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death

25.  Syncope in Patients with Comorbidity and Frailty

26.  Psychogenic Transient Loss of Consciousness and its Evaluation

27.  Neurological Causes and Mimics of Syncope

28.  Syncope (transient loss of consciousness) Management Unit