Our mission is to become a worldwide reference for education in the field for all professionals involved in the process to disseminate knowledge & skills of Acute Cardiovascular Care.
Our mission is to promote excellence in clinical diagnosis, research, technical development, and education in cardiovascular imaging.
Our mission is to promote excellence in research, practice, education and policy in cardiovascular health, primary and secondary prevention.
Our mission is to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease through percutaneous cardiovascular interventions.
Improving the quality of life and reducing sudden cardiac death by limiting the impact of heart rhythm disturbances.
Our mission is to improve quality of life and longevity, through better prevention, diagnosis and treatment of heart failure, including the establishment of networks for its management, education and research.
The ESC Working Groups' goal is to stimulate and disseminate scientific knowledge in different fields of cardiology.
The ESC Councils' goal is to share knowledge among medical professionals practicing in specific cardiology domains.
Prof. Gilda Caruso
Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common complex congenital heart disease comprising a dilated ascending aorta overriding a ventricular septal defect, pulmonary valvular and subvalvular stenosis and right ventricular hypertrophy. The anatomic landmark of the pathology is the anterocephalad deviation of the outlet septum that creates the mallalineament ventricular defect, the pulmonary stenosis and the overriding aorta. There are many variants of the disease, including right aortic arch and pulmonary atresia. In the fetus the post-natal right ventricular hypertrophy is not yet present and the diagnosis is mostly based on the recognition by two-dimensional echocardiography of the overriding aorta and the unrestrictive subaortic ventricular septal defect. The disproportion between the dimension of the ascending aorta and of the pulmonary trunk is also evident, especially in cases of pulmonary atresia and tends also to increase during pregnancy. The pulmonary blood supply in case of pulmonary atresia is originating from the ductus arteriosus and/or systemic collaterals from thoracic aorta.
Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (extreme Fallot). Right aortic arch. Fetal heart of 21 wks of gestation.
Figure 1: External view: Hypoplastic Pulmonary trunk (PT). Dilatation of the ascending aorta and right aortic arch with mirror-image distribution of the epiaortic arteries.
Figure 2: section “4-chamber view” like: The dextroposed aorta (AO) overrides the ventricular septal defect (VSD)
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