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Sex and gender in cardiovascular medicine: presentation and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome

Commented by Prof. Dr. med. Catherine Gebhard / Dr. sc. ETH Ahmed Haider


Sex and gender differences in the presentation and outcome of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are substantial. Despite the growing body of evidence for excess cardiovascular vulnerability in female patients, a persistent knowledge gap is nourished by the underrepresentation of women in clinical ACS trials. Intriguingly, increasing mortality rates have recently been reported for young women <55 years of age. This review provides an overview of the contemporary evidence for sex and gender differences in vascular biology, clinical presentation and outcomes of ACS.



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The content of this article reflects the personal opinion of the author/s and is not necessarily the official position of the European Society of Cardiology.

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