Our mission is to become a worldwide reference for education in the field for all professionals involved in the process to disseminate knowledge & skills of Acute Cardiovascular Care.
Our mission is to promote excellence in clinical diagnosis, research, technical development, and education in cardiovascular imaging in Europe.
Our mission is to promote excellence in research, practice, education and policy in cardiovascular health, primary and secondary prevention.
Our mission is to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in Europe through percutaneous cardiovascular interventions.
Our mission is to improve the quality of life of the population by reducing the impact of cardiac rhythm disturbances and reduce sudden cardiac death.
Our mission is to improve quality of life and longevity, through better prevention, diagnosis and treatment of heart failure, including the establishment of networks for its management, education and research.
The ESC Working Groups' goal is to stimulate and disseminate scientific knowledge in different fields of cardiology.
The ESC Councils' goal is to share knowledge among medical professionals practising in specific cardiology domains.
OUR MISSION: TO REDUCE THE BURDEN OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
Dr. Nikolaos Tzemos,
Dr. Ify Mordi
Pre-operative cardiac assessment of a peripheral artery disease patient is a common consultation request for the cardiologist. Read an update here on how to see this process through.
Awareness that cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of premature death, most often manifested as coronary artery disease - is spreading. (1,2)Awareness that peripheral arterial disease (PAD) - defined as an ankle-brachial ratio of 0.9 or when patient has been previously revascularised with surgery or transluminal angioplasty - is a significant health burden however is not, even though 10% of the general population, 20% of those above 70 years and 30% of diabetics over 50 have PAD. (3,4) During surgery, these patients are at double the risk of cardiovascular mortality and major artery coronary events (MACE) because PAD usually comes with CAD, and vice versa. Indeed the systemic atherosclerotic process is the most common aetiology for both PAD and CAD. (5) Endovascular therapy angioplasty also incurs a high risk of adverse cardiovascular outcome. Pre-operative identification and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors is vital to reduce this risk; through. Appropriate interventions, investigations and drugs are detailed here.
Peripheral artery disease affects areas of the vascular bed: the carotid, lower extremity - these two being the most common - the upper limb, mesenteric or renal arteries. Whatever the area, the presence of PAD in one territory should prompt investigation for PAD elsewhere and also trigger a search for CAD (6). The vascular surgeon, at times with the interventional radiologist, will make the determination of each individual case according to the following framework for intervention:
The cardiologist should assess abnormal angiograms (in one study over 90% of patients with PAD had abnormal angiograms) and should assess: (7)
The following conditions should be immediately dealt with prior to any or further PAD surgery:
If however, there are no concerning features based on these initial screening tests, we recommend that the patient proceed to surgery as planned with no further evaluation.
Fig.1 Management flowchart for PAD patients referred for pre-operative cardiovascular assessment.
According to the 2014 ESC/ESA Guidelines on non-cardiac surgery: cardiovascular assessment and management, routine echocardiography and or functional testing is recommended only if patient has at least two among the following risk factors: Ischemic heart disease, heart failure, stroke or transient ischemic stroke, renal dysfunction or diabetes requiring insulin therapy.
EchocardiographyPre-operative resting echocardiography can identify 1) significant valvular lesions and/or 2) severe left ventricular dysfunction in patients with:
Exercise ECGIn patients in whom history is suggestive of angina, exercise treadmill testing (ETT) is a first-line screening tool for assessment of ischemia. Indeed, in a group of patients due to undergo vascular surgery, ETT showed acceptable diagnostic accuracy, similar to that of the general population (sensitivity 74%, specificity 69%). (10)However stress echocardiography, nuclear imaging or stress CMR (see below), depending on availability, would be recommended when 1) patients with limited exercise tolerance due to limb claudication are unable to reach optimal exercise stress 2) resting ECG abnormalities cause difficulty in ETT interpretation.
Stress echocardiographyStress echocardiography is most commonly administered using dobutamine or dipyridamole given the limited exercise tolerance of patients with PAD. Extremely good prognosis is signaled if it is negative. The presence of an inducible wall motion abnormality is a relatively poor predictor of peri-operative MACE (positive predictive value 25-45%). In this group of patients, dobutamine may have a slightly higher sensitivity than dipyridamole.Nuclear imagingNuclear scintigraphy is well validated as a pre-operative risk stratification tool in patients with PAD. Its predictive power is similar to dipyridamole stress echocardiography. (11) As with stress echocardiography, the negative predictive value of nuclear imaging is extremely high.Stress cardiovascular magnetic resonanceStress magnetic resonance imaging using dobutamine or adenosine has excellent diagnostic accuracy for identification of significant ischaemia, however there are not any data as yet on its value in pre-operative risk stratification.Computerised tomography coronary angiographyMultislice computerised tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography defines coronary anatomy non-invasively. Its sensitivity for diagnosis of significant coronary stenoses is very high and may be useful in patients with inconclusive functional stress tests. (12, 13) Nevertheless, given the prevalence of CAD in patients with PAD, these patients often have a higher pre-test probability. Current ESC guidelines for investigation of stable angina recommend coronary CT in patients with 15-50% (i.e. low-intermediate) pre-test probability. (14) Despite this, the absence of significant stenosis seen using coronary CT has been shown to have good prognostic value in predicting peri-operative mortality in patients at intermediate risk but has not yet been evaluated in a high-risk cohort.Invasive coronary angiography
Current guidance recommends pre-operative invasive coronary angiography in patients with PAD and acute coronary syndromes or angina despite optimal medical therapy i.e. similar to current indications in the general population. In high-risk patients without any cardiac symptoms, pre-operative invasive coronary angiography is one option, however this should not delay any urgent PAD surgery, which should always be carried out first. It is important to note that there is, at best, conflicting evidence to suggest any mortality benefit with a routine pre-operative invasive strategy. (15-17) Furthermore, the requirement of dual anti-platelet therapy post-stenting may delay surgery, which may not be ideal. In our opinion, patients with a clear history of angina and documented ischaemia or CT evidence of severe stenosis should undergo pre-operative angiography with a view to percutaneous coronary intervention. We would not recommend routine angiography of asymptomatic patients without documented ischemia.
Among the most studied group of drugs in this area are beta-blockers. Until 2011, the guidelines were clear – beta-blockers, initiated between 7 to 30 days prior to operation in patients undergoing PAD surgery. The DECREASE trial drove the evidence for this strategy, the methods of which have been called into question since and have lead both the ESC and the American societies to rewrite their guidelines. (18) A meta-analysis published in 2011 without the DECREASE trials suggests that while pre-operative beta-blockers may reduce risk of non-fatal MI (by 27%), there was a 27% increase in all-cause mortality, and higher risk of stroke and hypotension. (19) The ESC has since recommended an individualised approach to pre-operative beta-blockade over routine and the latest guidelines advocate their use only when there are other indications, such as heart failure of ischaemic coronary disease. We would add that most patients should not routinely receive a beta-blocker and normal cardiological indications should be followed for patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, atrial fibrillation with a fast ventricular rate and stable angina.
Pre-operative statins are recommended. (20-22) These should also be continued during the operative period to avoid a rebound effect that can occur with their discontinuation. ACE-inhibitors (or angiotensin receptor antagonists) should be started in patients noted to have left ventricular systolic dysfunction pre-operatively (and surgery delayed to allow their initiation, if possible).The key point regarding any other drugs is that the patient’s pre-operative regime should be continued during the operative period.
Patients undergoing surgery for PAD are at high risk of peri-operative adverse cardiac events, primarily due to the systemic atherosclerotic process.
1 - European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012). The Fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts)Perk J, De Backer G, Gohlke H, Graham I, Reiner Z, Verschuren M, Albus C, Benlian P, Boysen G, Cifkova R, Deaton C, Ebrahim S, Fisher M, Germano G, Hobbs R, Hoes A, Karadeniz S, Mezzani A, Prescott E, Ryden L, Scherer M, Syvanne M, Scholte op Reimer WJ, Vrints C, Wood D, Zamorano JL, Zannad F.. Eur Heart J 2012;33(13):1635-701.2 - Effect of statin withdrawal on frequency of cardiac events after vascular surgerySchouten O, Hoeks SE, Welten GM, Davignon J, Kastelein JJ, Vidakovic R, Feringa HH, Dunkelgrun M, van Domburg RT, Bax JJ, Poldermans D. Am J Cardiol 2007;100(2):316-20.3 - Epidemiology, classification, and modifiable risk factors of peripheral arterial disease.Shammas NW. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2007;3(2):229-34.4 - One-year cardiovascular event rates in outpatients with atherothrombosis.Steg PG, Bhatt DL, Wilson PW, D'Agostino R, Sr., Ohman EM, Rother J, Liau CS, Hirsch AT, Mas JL, Ikeda Y, Pencina MJ, Goto S. JAMA 2007;297(11):1197-206.5 - Ankle brachial index combined with Framingham Risk Score to predict cardiovascular events and mortality: a meta-analysisFowkes FG, Murray GD, Butcher I, Heald CL, Lee RJ, Chambless LE, Folsom AR, Hirsch AT, Dramaix M, deBacker G, Wautrecht JC, Kornitzer M, Newman AB, Cushman M, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Fowkes FG, Lee AJ, Price JF, d'Agostino RB, Murabito JM, Norman PE, Jamrozik K, Curb JD, Masaki KH, Rodriguez BL, Dekker JM, Bouter LM, Heine RJ, Nijpels G, Stehouwer CD, Ferrucci L, McDermott MM, Stoffers HE, Hooi JD, Knottnerus JA, Ogren M, Hedblad B, Witteman JC, Breteler MM, Hunink MG, Hofman A, Criqui MH, Langer RD, Fronek A, Hiatt WR, Hamman R, Resnick HE, Guralnik J, McDermott MM. . JAMA 2008;300(2):197-208.6 - ESC Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral artery diseases: Document covering atherosclerotic disease of extracranial carotid and vertebral, mesenteric, renal, upper and lower extremity arteries: the Task Force on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Peripheral Artery Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).Tendera M, Aboyans V, Bartelink ML, Baumgartner I, Clement D, Collet JP, Cremonesi A, De Carlo M, Erbel R, Fowkes FG, Heras M, Kownator S, Minar E, Ostergren J, Poldermans D, Riambau V, Roffi M, Rother J, Sievert H, van Sambeek M, Zeller T. Eur Heart J 2011;32(22):2851-906.7 - A classification of 1000 coronary angiograms and results of surgical management. Hertzer NR, Beven EG, Young JR, O'Hara PJ, Ruschhaupt WF, 3rd, Graor RA, Dewolfe VG, Maljovec LC. Coronary artery disease in peripheral vascular patients. Ann Surg 1984;199(2):223-33.8 - Long-term prognostic value of the preoperative 12-lead electrocardiogram before major noncardiac surgery in coronary artery disease.Jeger RV, Probst C, Arsenic R, Lippuner T, Pfisterer ME, Seeberger MD, Filipovic M. Am Heart J 2006;151(2):508-13.9 - Guidelines for pre-operative cardiac risk assessment and perioperative cardiac management in non-cardiac surgery. Poldermans D, Bax JJ, Boersma E, De Hert S, Eeckhout E, Fowkes G, Gorenek B, Hennerici MG, Iung B, Kelm M, Kjeldsen KP, Kristensen SD, Lopez-Sendon J, Pelosi P, Philippe F, Pierard L, Ponikowski P, Schmid JP, Sellevold OF, Sicari R, Van den Berghe G, Vermassen F. Eur Heart J 2009;30(22):2769-812.10 - A meta-analysis comparing the prognostic accuracy of six diagnostic tests for predicting perioperative cardiac risk in patients undergoing major vascular surgeryKertai MD, Boersma E, Bax JJ, Heijenbrok-Kal MH, Hunink MG, L'Talien G J, Roelandt JR, van Urk H, Poldermans D. . Heart 2003;89(11):1327-34.11 - Meta-analysis of intravenous dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging (1985 to 1994) and dobutamine echocardiography (1991 to 1994) for risk stratification before vascular surgeryShaw LJ, Eagle KA, Gersh BJ, Miller DD. . J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27(4):787-98.12 - Prognostic value of CT angiography in patients with inconclusive functional stress testsde Azevedo CF, Hadlich MS, Bezerra SG, Petriz JL, Alves RR, de Souza O, Rati M, Albuquerque DC, Moll J. . JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2011;4(7):740-51.13 - Selecting a noninvasive imaging study after an inconclusive exercise testBlankstein R, Devore AD. Circulation 2010;122(15):1514-8.14 - 2013 ESC guidelines on the management of stable coronary artery disease: the Task Force on the management of stable coronary artery disease of the European Society of CardiologyMontalescot G, Sechtem U, Achenbach S, Andreotti F, Arden C, Budaj A, Bugiardini R, Crea F, Cuisset T, Di Mario C, Ferreira JR, Gersh BJ, Gitt AK, Hulot JS, Marx N, Opie LH, Pfisterer M, Prescott E, Ruschitzka F, Sabate M, Senior R, Taggart DP, van der Wall EE, Vrints CJ, Zamorano JL, Achenbach S, Baumgartner H, Bax JJ, Bueno H, Dean V, Deaton C, Erol C, Fagard R, Ferrari R, Hasdai D, Hoes AW, Kirchhof P, Knuuti J, Kolh P, Lancellotti P, Linhart A, Nihoyannopoulos P, Piepoli MF, Ponikowski P, Sirnes PA, Tamargo JL, Tendera M, Torbicki A, Wijns W, Windecker S, Knuuti J, Valgimigli M, Bueno H, Claeys MJ, Donner-Banzhoff N, Erol C, Frank H, Funck-Brentano C, Gaemperli O, Gonzalez-Juanatey JR, Hamilos M, Hasdai D, Husted S, James SK, Kervinen K, Kolh P, Kristensen SD, Lancellotti P, Maggioni AP, Piepoli MF, Pries AR, Romeo F, Ryden L, Simoons ML, Sirnes PA, Steg PG, Timmis A, Wijns W, Windecker S, Yildirir A, Zamorano JL. . Eur Heart J 2013;34(38):2949-3003.15 - Systematic strategy of prophylactic coronary angiography improves long-term outcome after major vascular surgery in medium- to high-risk patients: a prospective, randomized studyMonaco M, Stassano P, Di Tommaso L, Pepino P, Giordano A, Pinna GB, Iannelli G, Ambrosio G. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;54(11):989-96.16 - A clinical randomized trial to evaluate the safety of a noninvasive approach in high-risk patients undergoing major vascular surgery: the DECREASE-V Pilot StudyPoldermans D, Schouten O, Vidakovic R, Bax JJ, Thomson IR, Hoeks SE, Feringa HH, Dunkelgrun M, de Jaegere P, Maat A, van Sambeek MR, Kertai MD, Boersma E. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;49(17):1763-9.17 - Coronary-artery revascularization before elective major vascular surgery.McFalls EO, Ward HB, Moritz TE, Goldman S, Krupski WC, Littooy F, Pierpont G, Santilli S, Rapp J, Hattler B, Shunk K, Jaenicke C, Thottapurathu L, Ellis N, Reda DJ, Henderson WG. N Engl J Med 2004;351(27):2795-804.18 - The effect of bisoprolol on perioperative mortality and myocardial infarction in high-risk patients undergoing vascular surgeryPoldermans D, Boersma E, Bax JJ, Thomson IR, van de Ven LL, Blankensteijn JD, Baars HF, Yo TI, Trocino G, Vigna C, Roelandt JR, van Urk H. Dutch Echocardiographic Cardiac Risk Evaluation Applying Stress Echocardiography Study Group. N Engl J Med 1999;341(24):1789-94.19 - Meta-analysis of secure randomised controlled trials of beta-blockade to prevent perioperative death in non-cardiac surgeryBouri S, Shun-Shin MJ, Cole GD, Mayet J, Francis DP.. Heart 2014;100(6):456-64.20 - Effect of perioperative statins on death, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, and length of stay: a systematic review and meta-analsisChopra V, Wesorick DH, Sussman JB, Greene T, Rogers M, Froehlich JB, Eagle KA, Saint S. s. Arch Surg 2012;147(2):181-9.21 - Evidence of pre-procedural statin therapy a meta-analysis of randomized trialsWinchester DE, Wen X, Xie L, Bavry AA. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;56(14):1099-109.22 - New ESC/ESA Guidelines on non-cardiac surgery: cardiovascular assessment and management.Kristensen SD, Knuuti J. Eur Heart J. 2014 Sep 14;35(35):2344-5. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehu285. Epub 2014 Aug 7.
Ify Mordi, Nikolaos TzemosBHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, United KingdomAddress for Correspondence:Dr Nikolaos TzemosInstitute of Cardiovascular and Medical SciencesBritish Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research CentreUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUnited KingdomG12 8TAE-mail: email@example.comTelephone: +44(0)141 330 2079Fax: +44(0)141 330 6697Authors' Disclosures: None declared.
Other ressources in PADPAD is a coronary heart disease risk equivalent in women as it is in men (2014)Aspirin use, still first-line (2013)Is PAD uncommon in women? (2012)
© 2017 European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved