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Anatomical and Procedural Features Associated With Aortic Root Rupture During Balloon-Expandable Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

Valvular Heart Disease

Background—Aortic root rupture is a major concern with balloon-expandable transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We sought to identify predictors of aortic root rupture during balloon-expandable TAVR by using multidetector computed tomography.

Methods and Results—Thirty-one consecutive patients who experienced left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT)/annular/aortic contained/noncontained rupture during TAVR were collected from 16 centers. A caliper-matched sample of 31 consecutive patients without annular rupture, who underwent pre-TAVR multidetector computed tomography served as a control group. Multidetector computed tomography assessment included short- and long-axis diameters and cross-sectional area of the sinotubular junction, annulus, and LVOT, and the presence, location, and extent of calcification of the LVOT, as well. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in any preoperative clinical and echocardiographic variables. Aortic root rupture was identified in 20 patients and periaortic hematoma in 11. Patients with root rupture had a higher degree of subannular/LVOT calcification quantified by the Agatston score (181.2±211.0 versus 22.5±37.6, P<0.001), and a higher frequency of ≥20% annular area oversizing (79.4% versus 29.0%, P<0.001) and balloon postdilatation (22.6% versus 0.0%, P=0.005). In conditional logistic regression analysis for the matched data, moderate/severe LVOT/subannular calcifications (odds ratio, 10.92; 95% confidence interval, 3.23–36.91; P<0.001) and prosthesis oversizing ≥20% (odds ratio, 8.38; 95% confidence interval, 2.67–26.33; P<0.001) were associated with aortic root contained/noncontained rupture.

Conclusions—This study demonstrates that LVOT calcification and aggressive annular area oversizing are associated with an increased risk of aortic root rupture during TAVR with balloon-expandable prostheses. Larger studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

Notes to editor

Circulation. 2013;128:244-253
The content of this article reflects the personal opinion of the author/s and is not necessarily the official position of the European Society of Cardiology.