MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval and patient informed consent were obtained. Three hundred thirteen patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and 303 patients without DM underwent unenhanced 64-detector row CT, at which a calcium score was obtained, followed by CT angiography. Multidetector CT coronary angiograms were retrospectively classified as normal, showing nonobstructive CAD (<or=50% luminal narrowing), or showing obstructive CAD (>50% luminal narrowing).
During follow-up after CT angiography, major events (cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and unstable angina requiring hospitalization) and total events (major events plus coronary revascularizations) were recorded for each patient. Cox proportional hazards analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to compare survival rates.
RESULTS: In the group of 313 patients with DM, there were 213 men, and the mean age was 62 years +/- 11 (standard deviation). In the group of 303 patients without DM, there were 203 men, and the mean age was 63 years +/- 11. The mean number of diseased segments (5.6 vs 4.4, P = .001) and the rate of obstructive CAD (51% vs 37%, P < .001) were higher in patients with DM.
Patients were followed up for a mean of 20 months +/- 5.4 (range, 6-44 months). At multivariate analysis, DM (P < .001) and evidence of obstructive CAD (P < .001) were independent predictors of outcome. Obstructive CAD remained a significant multivariate predictor for both patients with DM and patients without DM. In both patients with DM and patients without DM with absence of disease, the event rate was 0%. The event rate increased to 36% in patients without DM but with obstructive CAD and was highest (47%) in patients with DM and obstructive CAD.
Conclusion:In both patients with DM and patients without DM, multidetector CT coronary angiography provides incremental prognostic information over baseline clinical variables, and the absence of atherosclerosis at CT coronary angiography is associated with an excellent prognosis. Multidetector CT coronary angiography might be a clinically useful tool for improving risk stratification in both patients with DM and patients without DM.