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1. Preamble 2. Justification/scope of the problem3. Prevention3.1 Rationale3.2 Population at risk 3.3 Situations and procedures at risk3.3.1 Dental procedures 3.3.2 Other at-risk procedures 3.4 Prophylaxis for dental procedures3.5 Prophylaxis for non-dental procedures 3.5.1 Respiratory tract procedures 3.5.2 Gastrointestinal or genitourinary procedures 3.5.3 Dermatological or musculoskeletal procedures 3.5.4 Body piercing and tattooing 3.5.5 Cardiac or vascular interventions3.5.6 Healthcare-associated infective endocarditis 4. The ‘Endocarditis Team’ 5. Diagnosis 5.1 Clinical features 5.2 Laboratory findings 5.3 Imaging techniques 5.3.1 Echocardiography 5.3.2 Multislice computed tomography 5.3.3 Magnetic resonance imaging 5.3.4 Nuclear imaging 5.4 Microbiological diagnosis 5.4.1 Blood culture–positive infective endocarditis5.4.2 Blood culture–negative infective endocarditis 5.4.3 Histological diagnosis of infective endocarditis 5.4.4 Proposed strategy for a microbiological diagnostic algorithm in suspected IE5.5 Diagnostic criteria6. Prognostic assessment at admission 7. Antimicrobial therapy: principles and methods 7.1 General principles 7.2 Penicillin-susceptible oral streptococci and Streptococcus bovis group7.3 Penicillin-resistant oral streptococci and Streptococcus bovis group7.4 Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-haemolytic streptococci (groups A, B, C, and G)7.5 Granulicatella and Abiotrophia (formerly nutritionally variant streptococci)7.6 Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci 7.7 Methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant staphylococci 7.8 Enterococcus spp7.9 Gram-negative bacteria 7.9.1 HACEK-related species 7.9.2 Non-HACEK species7.10 Blood culture–negative infective endocarditis 7.11 Fungi 7.12 Empirical therapy 7.13 Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy for infective endocarditis 8. Main complications of left-sided valve infective endocarditis and their management 8.1 Heart failure 8.1.1 Heart failure in infective endocarditis8.1.2 Indications and timing of surgery in the presence ofheart failure in infective endocarditis 8.2 Uncontrolled infection 8.2.1 Persisting infection 8.2.2 Perivalvular extension in infective endocarditis 8.2.3 Indications and timing of surgery in the presence of uncontrolled infection in infective endocarditis 8.3 Prevention of systemic embolism 8.3.1 Embolic events in infective endocarditis 8.3.2 Predicting the risk of embolism 8.3.3 Indications and timing of surgery to prevent embolism in infective endocarditis 9. Other complications of infective endocarditis 9.1 Neurological complications9.2 Infectious aneurysms 9.3 Splenic complications9.4 Myocarditis and pericarditis 9.5 Heart rhythm and conduction disturbances 9.6 Musculoskeletal manifestations 9.7 Acute renal failure10. Surgical therapy: principles and methods 10.1 Operative risk assessment 10.2 Preoperative and perioperative management 10.2.1 Coronary angiography 10.2.2 Extracardiac infection 10.2.3 Intraoperative echocardiography 10.3 Surgical approach and techniques10.4 Postoperative complications 11. Outcome after discharge: follow-up and long-term prognosis11.1 Recurrences: relapses and reinfections 11.2 Short-term follow-up 11.3 Long-term prognosis 12. Management of specific situations 12.1 Prosthetic valve endocarditis12.1.1 Definition and pathophysiology 12.1.2 Diagnosis 12.1.3 Prognosis and treatment 12.2 Infective endocarditis affecting cardiac implantable electronic devices 12.2.1 Introduction 12.2.2 Definitions of cardiac device infections 12.2.3 Pathophysiology 12.2.4 Risk factors 12.2.5 Microbiology 12.2.6 Diagnosis 12.2.7 Treatment 12.2.8 Antimicrobial therapy12.2.9 Complete hardware removal (device and lead extraction) 12.2.10 Reimplantation 12.2.11 Prophylaxis 12.3 Infective endocarditis in the intensive care unit 12.3.1 Organisms 12.3.2 Diagnosis 12.3.3 Management 12.4 Right-sided infective endocarditis 12.5 Infective endocarditis in congenital heart disease 12.6 Infective endocarditis during pregnancy 12.7 Antithrombotic therapy in infective endocarditis 12.8 Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis and endocarditis associated with cancers12.8.2 Infective endocarditis associated with cancer 13. To do and not to do messages from the guidelines 14. Appendix 15. References
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