Infective endocarditis is a complex and potentially life-threatening condition. It often affects individuals with pre-existing heart conditions, artificial valves, cardiac devices or a history of intravenous drug use who can benefit from preventive strategies including antibiotic prophylaxis in selected procedures.
The initial diagnosis can often be challenging in view of its heterogeneous clinical presentation resulting in delayed initiation of appropriate treatment and a greater risk of complications. Therapeutic management mandates a personalised, multidisciplinary approach, with early intervention together with targeted antibiotic treatment remaining the pillar of effective management.
Advanced imaging techniques have gained an increasingly important role both for diagnosis and management. Surgical intervention in cases with refractory infection, embolic complications, or valvular insufficiency, requires surgical expertise and meticulous postoperative care.