To describe lifestyle factors that could improve management of diabetes mellitus
Progression of diabetes is associated with both micro- and macrovascular complications. Management of diabetes may be (partly) reached by changing health-related behaviours, including (planning of) dietary intake and physical activity, however glycaemic control is poor amongst ~50% of people with diabetes.
Test your knowledge
Note: The views and opinions expressed on this page are those of the author and may not be accepted by others. While every attempt is made to keep the information up to date, there is always going to be a lag in updating information. The reader is encouraged to read this in conjunction with appropriate ESC Guidelines. The material on this page is for educational purposes and is not for use as a definitive management strategy in the care of patients. Quiz material in the site are only examples and do not guarantee outcomes from formal examinations.
- Andrews R, Cooper AR, Montgomery AA, et al. Diet or diet plus physical activity versus usual care in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: The Early ACTID randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2011; 378: 129-139.
- Beulens JWJ, Kruidhof JS, Grobbee DE, et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes patients: The EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. Diabetologia 2008; 51: 1631-1638.
- Boulé NG, Haddad E, Kenny GP, Wells GA, Sigal RJ. Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. JAMA 2001; 286; 10: 1218-1227.
- Bush T, Lovejoy JC, Deprey M, et al. The effect of tobacco cessation on weight gain, obesity, and diabetes risk. Obesity 2016; 24: 1834-1841.
- Church TS, Blair SN, Cocreham S, et al. Effects of aerobic and resistance training on haemoglobin A 1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2010; 304: 2253-2262.
- Gepner Y, Golan R, Harman-Boehm I, et al. Effects of initiating moderate alcohol intake on cardiometabolic risk in adults with type 2 diabetes: A 2-year randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2015; 163: 569-579.
- Hu Y, Zong G, Liu G, et al. Smoking cessation, weight change, type 2 diabetes and mortality. N Engl J Med 2018; 379: 623-632.
- Koppes LLJ, Dekker JM, Hendriks HFJ, et al. Meta-analysis of the relationship between alcohol consumption and coronary heart disease and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetologia 2006; 49: 648-652.
- Ohkuma T, Iwase M, Fujii H, et al. Dose- and time-dependent association of smoking and its cessation with glycemic control and insulin resistance in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Fukuoka diabetes registry. PLoS One 2015; 10: e0122023.
- Pan A, Wang Y, Talaei M, et al. Relation of smoking with total mortality and cardiovascular events among patients with diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Circulation 2015; 132: 1795-1804.
- Schwingshackl L, Chaimani A, Hoffmann G, et al. A network meta-analysis on the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eur J Epidemiol 2018; 33: 157-170.
Notes to editor
Dr. Muilwijk, Mirthe
Amsterdam University Medical Centre, The Netherlands