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EAPC Key Reference Library

Keep your knowledge up to date

Publications selected for you by the EAPC on Cardiac Rehabilitation; Exercise, Basic and Translational Research; Sports Cardiology

Prevention, Epidemiology & Population Science

Design and baseline characteristics for the ACE Inhibitor After Anthracycline (AAA) study of cardiac dysfunction in long-term pediatric cancer survivors. 
Silber JH, Cnaan A, Clark BJ, et al.
Am Heart J 2001;142(4):577-585

Comparison of left ventricular function by echocardiogram in patients with Wilms' tumor treated with anthracyclines versus those not so treated.
Iarussi D, Indolfi P, Pisacane C, et al. 
Am J Cardiol. 2003 Aug 1;92(3):359-61 

Chronic progressive cardiac dysfunction years after doxorubicin therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Lipshultz SE, Lipsitz SR, Sallan SE, Dalton VM, Mone SM, Gelber RD, Colan SD.
J Clin Oncol 2005;23:2629–2636

Prevention of high-dose chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity in high-risk patients by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition.
Cardinale D, Colombo A, Sandri MT, Lamantia G, Colombo N, Civelli M, Martinelli G, Veglia F, Fiorentini C, Cipolla CM
Circulation 2006;114:2474–2481

Chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity: current practice and prospects of prophylaxis.
Gharib MI, Burnett AK
European Journal of Heart Failure 4 (2002) 235-242

Individualised prevention of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in cancer treatment.
Greco E, Greco R
E-journal of Cardiology Practice, Vol 10, N° 30, 04 Jun 2012

Sport Cardiology

Cardiac adaptation to exercise in adolescent athletes of African ethnicity: an emergent elite athletic population.
Sheikh N, Papadakis M, Carre F, Kervio G, Panoulas VF, Ghani S, Zaidi A, Gati S, Rawlins J, Wilson MG, Sharma S. Br J Sports Med 2013;47:585-92.

Impact of ethnicity upon cardiovascular adaptation in competitive athletes: relevance to preparticipation screening.
Papadakis M, Wilson MG, Ghani S, Kervio G, Carre F, Sharma S. Br J Sports Med 2012;46:i22-i28.

Commotio cordis – under-recognized in Europe? a case report and review.
Erik Ekker Solberg, Bernt Inge Embrå, Mats Börjesson, Johan Herlitz, Domenico Corrado
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology June 2011 vol. 18 no. 3 378-383

The prevalence, distribution and clinical outcomes of electrocardiographic repolarisation patterns in male athletes of African/Afro-Caribbean origin.
Papadakis M, Carre F, Kervio G, Rawlins J, Panoulas VF, Chandra N, Basavarajaiah S, Carby L, Fonseca T, Sharma S. Eur Heart J 2011;32:2304-13.

Cardiovascular pre-participation screening does not distress professional football players.
E E Solberg, T H Bjørnstad, T E Andersen, and Ø Ekeberg
European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, 1741826711410818, first published on May 25, 2011

Ethnic differences in physiological cardiac adaptation to intense physical exercise in highly trained female athletes.
Rawlins J, Carre F, Kervio G, Papadakis M, Chandra N, Edwards C, Whyte GP, Sharma S. Circulation 2010;121:1078-85.

Prevalence and significance of an isolated long QT interval in elite athletes
Sandeep Basavarajaiah, Matthew Wilson, Gregory Whyte, Ajay Shah, Elijah Behr, and Sanjay Sharma. This article comes out as an interesting paper on a selected cohort of elite athletes concerning a debated clinical and electrocardiographic problem the prevalence of long Qt syndrome
The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of prolonged QTc interval in a large cohort of elite British athletes and to evaluate the significance of prolonged QTc interval utilizing Holter monitoring, exercise testing, cardiovascular evaluation of first-degree relatives, and genetic testing in consenting individuals.
The prevalence of prolonged QT corrected for the heart rate resulted as being 0,4% . A QTc of < 500 ms in absence of symptoms or familial disease is unlikely to represent long Qt syndrome in elite athletes according to the authors. Eur Heart J 2007 28: 2944-2949

Prevalence of abnormal electrocardiograms in a large, unselected population undergoing pre-participation cardiovascular screening. 
Pelliccia A, Culasso F, Di Paolo FM, Accettura D, Cantore R, Castagna W, Ciacciarelli A, Costini G, Cuffari B, Drago E, Federici V, Gribaudo CG, Iacovelli G, Landolfi L, Menichetti G, Atzeni UO, Parisi A, Pizzi AR, Rosa M, Santelli F, Santilio F, Vagnini A, Casasco M, Di Luigi L.
The implementation of 12-lead ECG in the pre-participation screening of young athletes is still controversial and numbers of issues are largely debated, including the prevalence and spectrum of ECG abnormalities found in individuals undergoing pre-participation screening. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed a large, unselected population of 32,652 subjects [26 050 (80%) males], prospectively examined in 19 clinics associated to Italian Sports Medicine Federation. Most were young amateur athletes, aged 8-78 years (median 17). The prevalence of markedly abnormal ECG patterns, suggestive for structural cardiac disease, is low (<5% of the overall population) and should not represent obstacle for implementation of 12-lead ECG in the pre-participation screening program. Eur Heart J. 2007 Aug;28(16):2006-10

Sudden death in sports among young adults in Norway.
Erik Ekker Solberg, Finn Gjertsen, Erlend Haugstad and Lars Kolsrud.  DOI: 10.1097/HJR.0b013e328332f8f7

Efficacy of personal symptom and family history questionnaires when screening for inherited cardiac pathologies? The role of electrocardiography
Br. J. Sports Med. published online 21 Sep 2007; doi:10.1136/bjsm.2007.039420.  Mathew G Wilson, Sandeep Basavarajaiah, Gregory Whyte, Steve Cox, Mike Loosemore and Sanjay Sharma
English cohort focused on the screening evaluation using familial, personal history, clinical evaluation and 12 leads ECG both on high level athletes and on school children performing regular physical activity: The article emphasize the usefulness of the 12 leads ECG, already known in literature and demonstrate as well the usefulness of the “European model” for athletes also for school children as well. The percentage of subjects needing a second level evaluation is about 10%: a percentage between 5 and 10% of doubtful cases has, in past, already been described in other cohorts of athletes.

Outcomes in athletes with marked ECG repolarization abnormalities
N Engl J Med. 2008 Jan 10;358(2):152-61.  Pelliccia A, Di Paolo FM, Quattrini FM, Basso C, Culasso F, Popoli G, De Luca R, Spataro A, Biffi A, Thiene G, Maron BJ.
Some athletes can manifest trivial abnormalities of 12 leads ECG without evidence of structural heart disease and are a difficult diagnostic problem because the natural history of these subjects it is still unknown. This article concerns a large series of top level athletes with long term follow up and demonstrates that markedly abnormal ECGs in young and apparently healthy athletes may represent the initial expression of underlying cardiomyopathies that may not be evident until many years later and that may ultimately be associated with adverse outcomes. Athletes with such ECG patterns merit continued clinical surveillance. Athletes with normal ECG during the inclusion did not manifest, during a long term follow up, any problem This article reinforces the usefulness of 12 leads ECG during athletes screening both in subjects with normal and in those with abnormal 12 leads ECG.

Evaluation of athletes’ ECG
Recommendations for interpretation of 12-lead electrocardiogram in the athlete. 
Corrado,D.; Pelliccia,A.; Heidbuchel,H.; Sharma,S.; Link,M.; Basso,C.; Biffi,A.; Buja,G.; Delise,P.; Gussac,I.; Anastasakis,A.; Borjesson,M.; Bjornstad,H.H.; Carre,F.; Deligiannis,A.; Dugmore,D.; Fagard,R.; Hoogsteen,J.; Mellwig,K.P.; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop,N.; Solberg,E.; Vanhees,L.; Drezner,J.; Estes,N.A.,III; Iliceto,S.; Maron,B.J.; Peidro,R.; Schwartz,P.J.; Stein,R.; Thiene,G.; Zeppilli,P.; McKenna,W.J.
Eur Heart J, 2010;31:243-59.

Effetcs of screening
Trends in sudden cardiovascular death in young competitive athletes after implementation of a preparticipation screening program.
Corrado D, Basso C, Pavei A, Michieli P, Schiavon M, Thiene G.
JAMA 2006; 296:1593-601.

Screening of young athletes <35 years old
Cardiovascular pre-participation screening of young competitive athletes for prevention of sudden death: proposal for a common European protocol.
Corrado D, Pelliccia A, Bjørnstad H, Vanhees L, Biffi A, Børjesson M, Panhuyzen-Goedkoop N, Deligiannis A, Solberg E, Dugmore D, Melwig KP, D Assanelli D, P Delise, F van-Buuren, A Anastasakis, H Heidbuchel, E Hoffmann, R Fagard, SG Priori, C Basso, E Arbustini, C Blostrom-Lundquist, W McKenna, G Thiene.
Eur Heart J 2005; 26: 516-524.

Exercise, Basic and Translational Research

Clinician's Guide to cardiopulmonary exercise testing in adults: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association
American Heart Association Exercise, Cardiac Rehabilitation, and Prevention Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Epidemiology and Prevention; Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease; Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research.
Balady GJ, Arena R, Sietsema K, Myers J, Coke L, Fletcher GF, Forman D, Franklin B, Guazzi M, Gulati M, Keteyian SJ, Lavie CJ, Macko R, Mancini D, Milani RV
Circulation 2010;122(2):191-225

Effect of increased exercise in school children on physical fitness and endothelial progenitor cells: a prospective randomized trial.
Walther C, Gaede L, Adams V, Gelbrich G, Leichtle A, Erbs S, Sonnabend M, Fikenzer K, Körner A, Kiess W, Bruegel M, Thiery J, Schuler G. Circulation 120:2251-2259 (2009).

Regular exercise training prevents aortic valve disease in low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice.
Matsumoto Y, Adams V, Jacob S, Mangner N, Schuler G, Linke A. Circulation 121:759-767 (2010).

The 6-min walk test in heart failure: is it a max or sub-maximum exercise test?
Jehn M, Halle M, Schuster T, Hanssen H, Weis M, Koehler F, Schmidt-Trucksäss A.
Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009 Oct;107(3): 317-23. Epub 2009 Jul 18.

Time dependent mobilization of circulating progenitor cells during strenuous exercise in healthy individuals.
Möbius-Winkler S, Hilberg T, Menzel K, Golla E, Burman A, Schuler G, Adams V. J Appl Pysiol 107:1943-50 (2009).

Validity and reliability of omron pedometers at slow walking speeds.
Jehn ML, Schmidt-Trucksäss A, Halle M. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 Sep;41(9): 1826; author reply 1827-8.

Physical activity and the metabolic syndrome in elderly German men and women: results from the population-based KORA survey
Hahn V, Halle M, Schmidt-Trucksäss A, Rathmann W, Meisinger C, Mielck A.  Diabetes Care. 2009 Mar;32(3):511-3.

Daily walking performance as an independent predictor of advanced heart failure: Prediction of exercise capacity in chronic heart failure.
Jehn M, Schmidt-Trucksäss A, Schuster T, Weis M, Hanssen H, Halle M, Koehler F.  Am Heart J. 2009 Feb;157(2):292-8.

Left ventricular volumes and mass in marathon runners and their association with cardiovascular risk factors.
Nassenstein K, Breuckmann F, Lehmann N, Schmermund A, Hunold P, Broecker-Preuss M, Sandner TA, Halle M, Mann K, Jöckel KH, Heusch G, Budde T, Erbel R, Barkhausen J, Möhlenkamp S Int.  J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2009 Jan;25(1): 71-9.

Accelerometer-based quantification of 6-minute walk test performance in patients with chronic heart failure: applicability in telemedicine.
Jehn M, Schmidt-Trucksäess A, Schuster T, Hanssen H, Weis M, Halle M, Koehler F.  J Card Fail. 2009 May;15(4):334-40. Epub 2009 Jan 9.

Interval training normalizes cardiomyocyte function, diastolic Ca2+ control, and SR Ca2+ release synchronicity in a mouse model of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Stolen TO, Hoydal MA, Kemi OJ, Catalucci D, Ceci M, Aasum E, Larsen T, Rolim N, Condorelli G, Smith GL, Wisloff U. Circ Res 2009;105:527-536.
Comment: This study shows that regular exercise training may have the potential to correct the contractile dysfunction observed in diabetic cardiomyopathy. The exercise training-induced correction occurred due to adaptive behavior of the intracellular structures of the heart muscle cell that control excitation-contraction coupling, such as several protein kinase systems, the transverse tubules, and calcium transport pumps. The study was a collaborative effort of several groups located in Norway, United Kingdom, and Italy.

High-intensity interval training to maximize cardiac benefits of exercise training?
Wisloff U, Ellingsen O, Kemi OJ. Exerc Sports Sci Rev 2009;37:139-146.
Comment: A commissioned review paper exploring the differential effects of low and high exercise training intensities on improving the pump function of the heart and correcting cardiac pump dysfunction in heart disease, written by past and current members of the EAPC basic and translational research nucleus.

Aerobic interval training vs. continuous moderate exercise in the metabolic syndrome of rats artificially selected for low aerobic capacity.
Haram PM, Kemi OJ, Lee SJ, Bendheim MO, Al-Share QY, Waldum HL, Gillian LJ, Koch LG, Britton SL, Najjar SM, Wisloff U. Cardiovasc Res 2009;81:723-732.
Comment: This study adds further evidence to the notion that the beneficial effects of exercise training in cardiovascular dysfunction or disease depend on the intensity with which the exercise is carried out. Here, the scientists showed that exercise training reduces the cardiovascular risk profile in an animal model of the metabolic syndrome; especially with respect to parameters such as exercise capacity and maximal oxygen consumption, endothelial function, blood pressure, and metabolic parameters, that that the risk reduction was greater after high-intensity exercise training. The research was carried out by groups based in Norway, United Kingdom, and United States of America.

Circulating CD34+/KDR+ endothelial progenitor cells are reduced in chronic heart failure patients as a function of Type D personality.
Van Craenenbroeck EM, Denollet J, Paelinck BP, Beckers P, Possemiers N, Hoymans VY, Vrints CJ, Conraads VM. Clin Sci (Lond). 2009;117:165-72.

Exercise training reduces circulating adiponectin levels in patients with chronic heart failure.
Van Berendoncks AM, Beckers P, Hoymans VY, Possemiers N, Wuyts FL, Vrints CJ, Conraads VM. Clin Sci (Lond). 2009 Aug 6. [Epub ahead of print]

Accuracy of low-dose computed tomography coronary angiography using prospective electrocardiogram-triggering: first clinical experience. 
Herzog BA, Husmann L, Burkhard N, Gaemperli O, Valenta I, Tatsugami F, Wyss CA, Landmesser U, Kaufmann PA.
Eur Heart J. 2008 Dec;29(24):3037-42. Epub 2008 Nov 7.

Aerobic interval training vs. continuous moderate exercise in the metabolic syndrome of rats artificially selected for low aerobic capacity.
Haram PM, Kemi OJ, Lee SJ, Bendheim MO, Al-Share QY, Waldum HL, Gilligan LJ, Koch LG, Britton SL, Najjar SM, Wisløff U. Cardiovasc Res. 2008 Dec 18. (Epub ahead of print)

Aerobic interval training versus continuous moderate exercise as a treatment for the metabolic syndrome: a pilot study.
Tjønna AE, Lee SJ, Rognmo Ø, Stølen TO, Bye A, Haram PM, Loennechen JP, Al-Share QY, Skogvoll E, Slørdahl SA, Kemi OJ, Najjar SM, Wisløff U. Circulation. 2008 Jul 22;118(4):346-54.

Physical activity and mortality in men and women with coronary heart disease: a prospective population-based cohort study in Norway (the HUNT study).
Moholdt T, Wisløff U, Nilsen TI, Slørdahl SA.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2008 Dec;15(6):639-45.

Potential novel pharmacological therapies for myocardial remodelling.
Landmesser U, Wollert KC, Drexler H. Cardiovasc Res. 2008 Dec 15. [Epub ahead of print].

Induction of MuRF1 is essential for TNF-alpha-induced loss of muscle function in mice.
Adams V, Mangner N, Gasch A, Krohne C, Gielen S, Hirner S, Thierse HJ, Witt CC, Linke A, Schuler G, Labeit S. J Mol Biol. 2008 Dec 5;384(1):48-59. Epub 2008 Sep 11.

Local energetic regulation of sarcoplasmic and myosin ATPase is differently impaired in rats with heart failure.
Joubert F, Wilding JR, Fortin D, Domergue-Dupont V, Novotova M, Ventura-Clapier R, Veksler V. J Physiol. 2008 Nov 1;586(Pt 21):5181-92. Epub 2008 Sep 11.

Circulating progenitor cells decrease immediately after marathon race in advanced-age marathon. runners. 
Adams V, Linke A, Breuckmann F, Leineweber K, Erbs S, Kränkel N, Bröcker-Preuss M, Woitek F, Erbel R, Heusch G, Hambrecht R, Schuler G, Möhlenkamp S.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2008 Oct;15(5):602-7.

Effect of oral organic nitrates on expression and activity of vascular soluble guanylyl cyclase. 
Oppermann M, Dao VT, Suvorava T, Bas M, Kojda G.
Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;155(3):335-42. Epub 2008 Jun 30.

Combined endurance-resistance training vs. endurance training in patients with chronic heart failure: a prospective randomized study. 
Beckers PJ, Denollet J, Possemiers NM, Wuyts FL, Vrints CJ, Conraads VM.
Eur Heart J. 2008 Aug;29(15):1858-66. Epub 2008 May 30.

Cardiac Rehabilitation

Running: the risk of coronary events : Prevalence and prognostic relevance of coronary atherosclerosis in marathon runners. 
Möhlenkamp S, Lehmann N, Breuckmann F, Bröcker-Preuss M, Nassenstein K, Halle M, Budde T, Mann K, Barkhausen J, Heusch G, Jöckel KH, Erbel R; Marathon Study Investigators; Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study Investigators.
Eur Heart J. 2008 Aug;29(15):1903-10.

Increasing physical education in high school students: effects on concentration of circulating endothelial progenitor cells. 
Walther C, Adams V, Bothur I, Drechsler K, Fikenzer S, Sonnabend M, Bublitz B, Körner A, Erbs S, Busse M, Schuler G.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2008 Aug;15(4):416-22.

Exercise-induced biphasic increase in circulating NT-proBNP levels in patients with chronic heart failure. 
Conraads VM, De Maeyer C, Beckers P, Possemiers N, Martin M, Van Hoof V, Vrints CJ.
Eur J Heart Fail. 2008 Aug;10(8):793-5. Epub 2008 Jul 3.

Aerobic interval training reduces cardiovascular risk factors more than a multi treatment approach in overweight adolescents
Tjønna AE, Stølen TO, Bye A, Volden M, Slørdahl SA, Odegård R, Skogvoll E, Wisløff U. Clin Sci (Lond). 2008 Aug 1. [Epub ahead of print]

Comparing Type D personality and older age as correlates of tumor necrosis factor-alpha dysregulation in chronic heart failure. 
Denollet J, Vrints CJ, Conraads VM.
Brain Behav Immun. 2008 Jul;22(5):736-43. Epub 2008 Feb 20.

Transcriptional control of mitochondrial biogenesis: the central role of PGC-1alpha. 
Ventura-Clapier R, Garnier A, Veksler V.
Cardiovasc Res. 2008 Jul 15;79(2):208-17.

Modulation of Murf-1 and MAFbx expression in the myocardium by physical exercise training. 
Adams V, Linke A, Gielen S, Erbs S, Hambrecht R, Schuler G.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2008 Jun;15(3):293-9

Methodological approaches to optimize reproducibility and power in clinical studies of flow-mediated dilation.
Donald AE, Halcox JP, Charakida M, Storry C, Wallace SM, Cole TJ, Friberg P, Deanfield JE. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 May 20;51(20):1959-64.

Socioeconomic status moderates the association between carotid intima-media thickness and cognition in midlife: evidence from the Whitehall II study.
Singh-Manoux A, Britton A, Kivimaki M, Guéguen A, Halcox J, Marmot M. Atherosclerosis. 2008 Apr;197(2):541-8. Epub 2007 Sep 14.

Myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase function is increased by aerobic interval training. 
Kemi OJ, Ceci M, Condorelli G, Smith GL, Wisloff U.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2008 Apr;15(2):145-8.

A maximal exercise bout increases the number of circulating CD34+/KDR+ endothelial progenitor cells in healthy subjects. Relation with lipid profile. 
Van Craenenbroeck EM, Vrints CJ, Haine SE, Vermeulen K, Goovaerts I, Van Tendeloo VF, Hoymans VY, Conraads VM.
J Appl Physiol. 2008 Apr;104(4):1006-13. Epub 2008 Jan 24.

Quantification of circulating endothelial progenitor cells: a methodological comparison of six flow cytometric approaches.
Van Craenenbroeck EM, Conraads VM, Van Bockstaele DR, Haine SE, Vermeulen K, Van Tendeloo VF, Vrints CJ, Hoymans VY. J Immunol Methods. 2008 Mar 20;332(1-2):31-40. Epub 2008 Jan 18

Activation or inactivation of cardiac Akt/mTOR signaling diverges physiological from pathological hypertrophy.
Kemi OJ, Ceci M, Wisloff U, Grimaldi S, Gallo P, Smith GL, Condorelli G, Ellingsen O. J Cell Physiol. 2008 Feb;214(2):316-21.

Transcriptional control of mitochondrial biogenesis: the central role of PGC-1alpha.
Ventura-Clapier R, Garnier A, Veksler V. Cardiovasc Res. 2008 Jul 15;79(2):208-17.

Rate response and cardiac resynchronisation therapy in chronic heart failure: higher cardiac output does not acutely improve exercise performance: a pilot trial.  
Van Thielen G, Paelinck BP, Beckers P, Vrints CJ, Conraads VM.

Heart failure and cachexia: insights offered from molecular biology
Conraads VM, Hoymans VY, Vrints CJ. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:325-35. Review.

Effects of exercise training upon endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular disease
Linke A, Erbs S, Hambrecht R. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:424-32. Review.

Exercise training restores aerobic capacity and energy transfer systems in heart failure treated with losartan.
Kemi OJ, Hoydal MA, Haram PM, Garnier A, Fortin D, Ventura-Clapier R, Ellingsen O. Cardiovasc Res 2007;76:91-99.

Aerobic interval training enhances cardiomyocyte contractility and Ca2+ cycling by phosphorylation of CaMKII and Thr-17 of phospholamban.
Kemi OJ, Ellingsen O, Ceci M, Grimaldi S, Smith GL, Condorelli G, Wisloff U. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2007;43:354-361.

Prevention of transient endothelial dysfunction in acute exercise: A friendly fire?
Suvorava T, Kojda G. Thromb Haemost 2007;97:331-3.

Superior cardiovascular effect of aerobic interval training versus moderate continuous training in heart failure patients: a randomized study.
Wisloff U, Stoylen A, Loennechen JP, Bruvold M, Rognmo O, Haram PM, Tjonna AE, Helgerud J, Slordahl SA, Lee SJ, Videm V, Bye A, Smith GL, Najjar SM, Ellingsen O, Skjaerpe T. Circulation 2007;115:3042-4.

Angiotensin II induces endothelial xanthine oxidase activation: role for endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary disease.
Landmesser U, Spiekermann S, Preuss C, Sorrentino S, Fischer D, Manes C, Mueller M, Drexler H. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:943-8.

Endogenous endothelin in human coronary vascular function: differential contribution of endothelin receptor types A and B.
Halcox JP, Nour KR, Zalos G, Quyyumi AA. Hypertension 2007;49:1134-41.

Myocardial expression of Murf-1 and MAFbx after induction of chronic heart failure: Effect on myocardial contractility.
Adams V, Linke A, Wisloff U, Doring C, Erbs S, Krankel N, Witt CC, Labeit S, Muller-Werdan U, Schuler G, Hambrecht R. Cardiovasc Res. 2007;73:120-9.

Beneficial effects of endurance training on cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism in heart failure.
Ventura-Clapier R, Mettauer B, Bigard X. Cardiovasc Res. 2007;73:10-8.

The effect of endurance training on exercise capacity following cardiac resynchronization therapy in chronic heart failure patients: a pilot trial.
Conraads V, Vanderheyden M, Paelinck B, Verstreken S, Blankoff I, Miljoen H, De Sutter J, Beckers P.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007;14:99-106

Principles of exercise testing and interpretation, including pathophysiology and clinical applications.
Wasserman K, Hansen JE, Sue DY, Stringer WW, Whipp BJ.
Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005

Combined endurance/resistance training reduces plasma TNF- receptor levels in patients with chronic heart failure and coronary artery disease 
Conraads VM, Beckers P, Bosmans J, De Clerck L, Stevens WJ, Vrints CJ and Brutsaert DL.
Eur Heart J 2002; 23(23):1854-1860

Secondary prevention and risk reduction therapy for patients with coronary and other atherosclerotic vascular disease: 2011 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation.
Smith SC Jr, Benjamin EJ, Bonow RO, Braun LT, Creager MA et al. AHA/ACCF . Circulation. 2011;124:2458-2473.

Enrollment, and delivery of cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention programs at clinical centers and beyond: a presidential advisory from the American Heart Association.
Balady GJ, Ades PA, Bittner VA, Franklin BA, Gordon NF, Thomas RJ, Tomaselli GF, Yancy CW. Referral.Circulation. 2011;124:2951-60.

Relationship between cardiac rehabilitation and long-term risks of death and myocardial infarction among elderly Medicare beneficiaries.
Hammill BG, Curtis LH, Schulman KA, Whellan DJ. Circulation. 2010;121:63-70

Mortality reductions in patients receiving exerci



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