European Society of Cardiology
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Welcome to the European Society of Cardiology. Our mission: to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in Europe
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Euro Heart Survey on Prevention

All results from the EuroAspire studies conducted within the EHS programme

Two surveys have already been completed and published on this topic. In December 2006, the third EuroAspire study was launched to provide the ESC with a new picture of the actual practice regarding secondary prevention.
  • EuroAspire I - Completed in 1995-96, before the EHS programme 
  • EuroAspire II (EA II)- Completed in 2001
  • EuroAspire III (EA III) - Completed in March 2008

Check the list of publications

Check the list of ESC guidelines on this topic

Patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) are the top priority for preventive cardiology. The first EUROASPIRE survey among patients with established CHD in nine countries in 1995-96 showed substantial potential for risk reduction.

A second survey (EUROASPIRE II) was done in 1999-2000 in the same countries to see whether preventive cardiology had improved since the first. We compared the proportion of patients in both studies who achieved the lifestyle, risk-factor, and therapeutic goals recommended by the Joint European Societies report on coronary prevention.

The surveys were undertaken in the same selected geographical areas and hospitals in the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovenia, and Spain. Consecutive patients (men and women < or = 70 years of age) were identified after coronary-artery bypass graft or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, or a hospital admission with acute myocardial infarction or ischaemia, and were interviewed at least 6 months later.

A total of 3569 and 3379 patients were interviewed in the first and second surveys, respectively. The prevalence of smoking remained almost unchanged at 19.4% vs 20.8%. The prevalence of obesity (body-mass index > or = 30 kg/m2) increased substantially from 25.3% to 32.8%. The proportion with high blood pressure (> or = 140/90 mm Hg) was virtually the same (55.4% vs 53.9%), whereas the prevalence of high total cholesterol concentrations (> or = 5.0 mmol/L) decreased substantially from 86.2% to 58.8%. Aspirin or other antiplatelet therapy was as widely used in the second survey as the first (83.9% overall), and reported use of beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, and especially lipid-lowering drugs increased.


  • The adverse lifestyle trends among European CHD patients are a cause for concern, as is the lack of any improvement in blood-pressure management, and the fact that most CHD patients are still not achieving the cholesterol goal of less than 5 mmol/L.
  • There is a collective failure of medical practice in Europe to achieve the substantial potential among patients with CHD to reduce the risk of recurrent disease and death.

Started in December 2006, EUROASPIRE III is a survey of the practice of preventive cardiology, involving 22 country - Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia , Slovenia, Spain, Turkey and the UK.

This third multi-centre European survey will give a unique European picture of preventive action by cardiologists, other specialists and primary care physicians looking after patients with coronary disease and their families, and individuals at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease. It will provide an objective assessment of clinical implementation of current scientific knowledge across the complete spectrum of preventive cardiology practice. The management of lifestyle and the use of prophylactic drug therapies will be evaluated in relation to the goals for cardiovascular disease prevention as defined in the current Joint European Societies’ Guidelines published in European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation in 2003.

Some preliminary results have been presented during the ESC congress 2007. The final results will be published in the coming months.

Contact Us if you have any questions regarding our projects on this topic.