Our mission is to become a worldwide reference for education in the field for all professionals involved in the process to dissemintate knowledge & skills of Acute Cardiovascular Care
Our mission is to promote excellence in clinical diagnosis, research, technical development, and education in cardiovascular imaging in Europe.
Our mission: To promote excellence in research, practice, education and policy in cardiovascular health, primary and secondary prevention.
Our goal is to reduce the burden in cardiovascular disease in Europe through percutaneous cardiovascular interventions.
Our Mission is "to improve the quality of life of the population by reducing the impact of cardiac rhythm disturbances and reduce sudden cardiac death"
To improve quality of life and logevity, through better prevention, diagnosis and treatment of heart failure, including the establishment of networks for its management, education and research.
Working Groups goals is to stimulate and disseminate scientific knowledge in different fields of cardiology.
ESC Councils goal is to share knowledge among medical professionals practising in specific cardiology domains.
OUR MISSION: TO REDUCE THE BURDEN OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
Prof. Pavel Poredos,
Antiplatelet therapy reduces the risk of cardiovascular events and progression of local disease in patients with PAD. Low dose aspirin is the first – line antiplatelet drug since it is safe, easily accessible and most cost – effective among antiplatelet agents and clopidogrel is its effective alternative. There is no evidence to support the efficacy of combined antiplatelet treatment. Oral anticoagulation therapy with warfarin alone or in combination with aspirin in not indicated to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in PAD patients. However oral anticoagulants should be considered in certain patients with thrombembolic state or history of peripheral graft occlusions.
Many studies have suggested that patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) manifest platelet hyperaggregability, increased levels of soluble platelet activation markers, enhanced thrombin generation and altered fibrinolytic potential. These data underline the importance of antithrombotic prophylaxis in patients with PAD (1). Therefore, antiplatelet and antithrombotic drugs represent one of the basic options for prevention and treatment of such patients (2). There are no trials including only patients with PAD that would have sufficient power to precisely estimate the preventive effect of these drugs.
The effect of antiplatelet therapy on cardiovascular events has been systematically reviewed by the Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration (3). A meta-analysis comprising 287 studies compared the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy in approximately 135.000 high-risk patients with vascular diseases including lower extremity peripheral arterial disease.
Among those patients with PAD treated with antiplatelet therapy, there was a 22 % odds reduction for adverse cardiovascular events, including MI, stroke, or vascular death.
Similar benefit was observed in patients with intermittent claudication, those having peripheral angioplasty, and those having peripheral bypass graft procedures. The most frequently used drug was aspirin and some trials included ticlopidine.
Low dose aspirin (75 - 325 mg daily) is as effective as higher doses, but it already comes at the price ofincreased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding – odds ratio 1.7 (95 % confidence interval, 0.8-3.3) for a major extracranial bleeding.
However there was a significantly smaller (13 %) reduction in cardiovascular events in patients being treated with less than 75 mg of aspirin per day.
Clopidogrel is thesecond most frequently used drug after aspirin for prevention of cardiovascular events in PAD patients.
Although clopidogrel is generally recognised as slightly more effective than aspirin in preventing major atherothrombotic events in high risk patients, the magnitude of this benefit is statistically uncertain and, mainly due to its much higher cost, clopidogrel has not been accepted as superior by regulatory authorities. Aspirin thus remains the first-line antiplatelet drug and clopidogrel as its effective alternative (5).
The question arises regarding whether a combination of 2 or more antiplatelet drugs is more effective than a single one. The combination of clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone has been examined in patients who had presented with acute coronary syndrome.
In patients with acute coronary syndrome :
In patients with vascular disease, high risk or low extremity PAD :
Another important, but less well-documented issue is whether antiplatelet treatment prevents worsening of lower limb ischemia in patients with PAD. Several studies have suggested that antiplatelet therapy may reduce the risk of progression to arterial occlusion in patients with lower extremity PAD.
The efficacy of oral anticoagulants with coumarin derivates such as warfarin, in reducing adverse cardiovascular events was confirmed primarily in studies of patients with coronary artery disease. Meta-analyses comprising 37 trials of anticoagulant therapy (OAC) in more than 20.000 patients with coronary artery disease evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral anticoagulation (warfarin) alone versus the control (12).
In patients with CAD
Three major trials have shown, that oral anticoagulation (target International Normalised Ratio - INR 2-3) on top of aspirin is effective in reducing cardiovascular death, reinfarction and stroke after myocardial infarction in comparison to aspirin alone (13). Thus, among patients with coronary artery disease, moderate and high-intensity oral anticoagulation with coumarin derivatives reduces the risk of MI and death but increases the rate of bleeding.
There are only a few studies evaluating the effect of oral anticoagulation to aspirin in PAD patients.
In the WAVE trial over 2.100 patients with peripheral vascular disease were randomised to the combination of oral anticoagulation (target INR 2-3, achieved INR 2.2) plus aspirin, or to aspirin alone and followed for nearly 3 years (15).
Anand et al recently reported a meta-analysis of nine randomised trials of oral anticoagulants compared with control (no treatment) involving 4889(16). They found that
The content of this article reflects the personal opinion of the author/s and is not necessarily the official position of the European Society of Cardiology.
1. Hackam DG, Eikelboom JW. Antithrombotic treatment for peripheral arterial disease. Heart 2007; 93: 303-8. 2. Hirsh AT, Haskal ZJ, Hertzer NR et al. ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic) 2005. (PDF) 3. Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration. Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ 2002; 324: 71-86. Erratum in: BMJ 2002; 324: 141. 4. A randomized, blinded trial of clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischaemic events (CAPRIE). CAPRIE Steering Committee. Lancet 1996; 348: 1329-39. 5. Blinc A, Poredoš P. Pharmacological prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Eur J Clin Invest 2007; 37: 157-64. 6. Yusuf S, Zhao F, Mehta SR et al. Effects of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 494-502. Errata in: N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1716: N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1506. 7. Schillinger M, Sabeti S, Loewe C et al. Balloon angioplasty versus implantation of nitinol stents in the superficial femoral artery. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 1879-88. 8. Bhatt DL, Fox KAA, Hacke W et al. for the CHARISMA Investigators. Clopidogrel and aspirin versus aspirin alone for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 1706-17. 9. Antiplatelet Trialists’ Collaboration. Collaborative overview of randomized trials of antiplatelet therapy – II: Maintenance of vascular graft of arterial patency by antiplatelet therapy. BMJ 1994; 308: 159-68. 10. Smith GD, Stupley MJ, Rose G. Intermittent claudication, heart disease risk factors, and mortality. The Whitehall study. Circulation 1990; 82: 1925-31. 11. Goldhaaber SZ, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ et al. Low-dose aspirin and subsequent peripheral arterial surgery in the Physicians' Health Study. Lancet 1992; 340: 143-5. 12. Anand SS, Yusuf S. Oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. JAMA 1999; 282: 2058-67. Erratum in: JAMA 2000; 284: 45. 13. Andreotti F, Testa L, Biondi-Zoccai GG, Crea F. Aspirin plus warfarin compared to aspirin alone after acute coronary syndromes: an updated and comprehensive meta-analysis of 25,307 patients. Eur Heart J 2006; 27: 519-26. 14. Dutch Bypass Oral Anticoagulation or Aspirin (BOA) Study Group. Efficacy of oral anticoagulants compared with aspirin after infrainguinal bypass surgery (The Dutch Bypass Oral anticoagulants or Aspirin study): a randomized trial. Lancet 2000; 355: 346-51. 15. The WAVE Investigators Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The effects of oral anticoagulants in patients with peripheral arterial disease: rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the Warfarin and Antiplatelet Vascular Evaluation (WAVE) trial, including a meta-analysis of trials. Am Heart J 2006; 151: 1-9.
16. Anand S. Warfarin Antiplatelet Vascular Evaluation: a randomized controlled trial testing moderate intensity oral anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy vs. antiplatelet therapy alone in patients with peripheral arterial disease. World Congress of Cardiology. Hotline Session II, Barcelona, Spain 2006 (WAVE), (WAVE).
Prof. P. Poredos, Dr. M. Ježovnik Department for Vascular Diseases, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Slovenia
© 2016 European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved