Report prepared by Assoc. Prof. Gabriel Kamensky with assistance and advice from:
National CVD Prevention Coordinator for Slovakia:
Assoc. Prof. , MD, PhD, FESC
Non-invasive and general cardiologist
Vth Internal Clinic, University Hospital Bratislava, The Department of Noninvasive Cardiovascular Diagnostics, Bratislava, Slovakia
The health care system in Slovakia is based on universal coverage, compulsory health insurance, a basic benefit package and a competitive insurance model with selective contracting and flexible pricing. Health care, with exceptions, is provided to insured for free through benefits-in-kind. At the end of 2013, there were registered 13 022 healthcare establishments in the operation of 11 904 healthcare providers. The outpatient healthcare establishments accounted for 78 %, institutional healthcare establishments for 1.4 %. The healthcare in these establishments was provided by 24 049.08 work positions of independent healthcare professionals.
Total health spending accounted for 8.1% of gross domestic product (GDP) in the Slovak Republic in 2012, lower than the average of 9.3% in OECD countries.
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The average life span in Slovakia is 72.5 years for men (about 5 years lower than the EU) and 79,9 years for women (about 3,20 years lower compared to the EU average). The sex-based difference in the average life span has changed over the last 10 years about 2,5 vs. 2,2 years. The age-standardised death rate (SDR) for cardiovascular diseases has decreased since 2004 by 26%. Nevertheless, it is still 50% higher compared to the average SDR in the EU (58% higher in men and 43% higher in women).
Table 1: The prevalence of the main CV risk factors in Slovakia (2012)
The main authorities acting in the prevention area are:
First stage of rehabilitation starts from the rule in the cardiology or heart surgery departments. The second stage is usually provided by specialised rehabilitation centres. Some of them are hospital-based, but most patients participate in 3-4 weeks rehabilitation programmes consisting of group-based therapies (exercise training, relaxation and stress management training, education therapy and lifestyle change therapy) usually in specialised cardiac rehabilitation centres. There are 7 active cardiac rehabilitation centres nowadays in Slovakia.
Approximately 60 % of all patients undergoing heart surgery or suffering from an acute coronary syndrome participate in a second stage of rehabilitation programme (up till 3 months post-event). In contrast, 74% of the patients, mostly those after revascularisation on peripheral arteries, participate in the third stage of rehabilitation.
Note: The content of this article reflects the personal opinion of the author/s and is not necessarily the official position of the European Society of Cardiology.
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