Our mission is to become a worldwide reference for education in the field for all professionals involved in the process to disseminate knowledge & skills of Acute Cardiovascular Care.
Our mission is to promote excellence in clinical diagnosis, research, technical development, and education in cardiovascular imaging in Europe.
Our mission is to promote excellence in research, practice, education and policy in cardiovascular health, primary and secondary prevention.
Our mission is to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in Europe through percutaneous cardiovascular interventions.
Our mission is to improve the quality of life of the population by reducing the impact of cardiac rhythm disturbances and reduce sudden cardiac death.
Our mission is to improve quality of life and longevity, through better prevention, diagnosis and treatment of heart failure, including the establishment of networks for its management, education and research.
The ESC Working Groups' goal is to stimulate and disseminate scientific knowledge in different fields of cardiology.
The ESC Councils' goal is to share knowledge among medical professionals practising in specific cardiology domains.
OUR MISSION: TO REDUCE THE BURDEN OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
To celebrate the ESC's upcoming April 2017 Preventive Cardiology meeting in Malaga, EuroPrevent, this issue of the ESC Virtual Journal highlights some of the must read articles on prevention, epidemiology and lipids from across the ESC Journal Family. We have made these free to view in their full text formats, so that you can fully benefit from the science we publish.
Fasting is not routinely required for determination of a lipid profile: clinical and laboratory implications including flagging at desirable concentration cut-points—a joint consensus statement from the European Atherosclerosis Society and European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine
Børge G. Nordestgaard, Anne Langsted, Samia Mora, Genovefa Kolovou, Hannsjörg Baum,Eric Bruckert, Gerald F. Watts, Grazyna Sypniewska, Olov Wiklund, Jan Borén, M. John Chapman, Christa Cobbaert, Olivier S. Descamps, Arnold von Eckardstein, Pia R. Kamstrup, Kari Pulkki, Florian Kronenberg, Alan T. Remaley, Nader Rifai, Emilio Ros,Michel Langlois
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Alirocumab in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia undergoing lipoprotein apheresis: the ODYSSEY ESCAPE trialPatrick M. Moriarty, Klaus G. Parhofer, Stephan P. Babirak, Marc-Andre Cornier, P. Barton Duell, Bernd Hohenstein, Josef Leebmann, Wolfgang Ramlow, Volker Schettler, Vinaya Simha, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Paul D. Thompson, Anja Vogt, Berndt von Stritzky, Yunling Du, Garen Manvelian
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Heart failure outcomes with empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk: results of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trialDavid Fitchett, Bernard Zinman, Christoph Wanner, John M. Lachin, Stefan Hantel, Afshin Salsali, Odd Erik Johansen, Hans J. Woerle, Uli C. Broedl, Silvio E. Inzucchi
Gut microbiota-dependent trimethylamine N-oxide in acute coronary syndromes: a prognostic marker for incident cardiovascular events beyond traditional risk factorsXinmin S. Li, Slayman Obeid, Roland Klingenberg, Baris Gencer, François Mach, Lorenz Räber, Stephan Windecker, Nicolas Rodondi, David Nanchen, Olivier Muller, Melroy X. Miranda, Christian M. Matter, Yuping Wu, Lin Li, Zeneng Wang, Hassan S. Alamri, Valentin Gogonea, Yoon-Mi Chung, W.H. Wilson Tang, Stanley L. Hazen, Thomas F. Lüscher
Is high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol beneficial for premature coronary heart disease? A meta-analysis. Shahid M, Sun RL, Liu Y, Bao JL, Huang CX, Liao Y, Zhou SX, Wang JF, Zhang YL. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016 May;23(7):704-13Seeking 'meta guidelines' for lipids. Dafoe WA, Hegele RA. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2017 Jan;24(1):72-75Lifestyle and risk factor management in people at high risk of cardiovascular disease. A report from the European Society of Cardiology European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) IV cross-sectional survey in 14 European regions. Kotseva K, De Bacquer D, De Backer G, Rydén L, Jennings C, Gyberg V, Abreu A, Aguiar C, Conde AC, Davletov K, Dilic M, Dolzhenko M, Gaita D, Georgiev B, Gotcheva N, Lalic N, Laucevicius A, Lovic D, Mancas S, Miličić D, Oganov R, Pajak A, Pogosova N, Reiner Ž, Vulic D, Wood D, The Euroaspire Investigators. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016 Sep 16. pii: 2047487316667784.The utility of the apolipoprotein A1 remnant ratio in predicting incidence coronary heart disease in a primary prevention cohort: The Jackson Heart Study. May HT, Nelson JR, Lirette ST, Kulkarni KR, Anderson JL, Griswold ME, Horne BD, Correa A, Muhlestein JB. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016 May;23(7):769-76Doses of rosuvastatin, atorvastatin and simvastatin that induce equal reductions in LDL-C and non-HDL-C: Results from the VOYAGER meta-analysis. Karlson BW, Palmer MK, Nicholls SJ, Lundman P, Barter PJ. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016 May;23(7):744-7.Utility of repeat serum cholesterol measurements for assessment of cardiovascular risk in primary prevention. Angelow A, Schmidt CO, Dörr M, Chenot JF. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016 Apr;23(6):628-35.Statin-associated muscle injury. Ballard KD, Taylor BA, Thompson PD. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2015 Sep;22(9):1161.The beneficial effects of raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol depends upon achieved levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol during statin therapy: Implications for coronary atheroma progression and cardiovascular events. Puri R, Nissen SE, Shao M, Kataoka Y, Uno K, Kapadia SR, Tuzcu EM, Nicholls SJ. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016 Mar;23(5):474-85.Treat-to-target versus dose-adapted statin treatment of cholesterol to reduce cardiovascular risk.Müller-Wieland D, Assmann G, Carmena R, Davignon J, von Eckardstein A, Farinaro E, Greten H, Olsson AG, Riesen WF, Shlyakhto E. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016 Feb;23(3):275-81.Association of high-density lipoprotein subclasses and incident coronary heart disease: The Jackson Heart and Framingham Offspring Cohort Studies. Joshi PH, Toth PP, Lirette ST, Griswold ME, Massaro JM, Martin SS, Blaha MJ, Kulkarni KR, Khokhar AA, Correa A, D'Agustino RB Sr, Jones SR; Lipoprotein Investigators Collaborative (LIC) Study Group.. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016 Jan;23(1):41-9.
2016 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the Management of DyslipidaemiasCatapano et al, Eur Heart J (2016) 37 (39): 2999-3058.
Fasting is not routinely required for determination of a lipid profile: clinical and laboratory implications including flagging at desirable concentration cut-points—a joint consensus statement from the European Atherosclerosis Society and European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Nordestgaard et al, Eur Heart J (2016) 37 (25): 1944-1958.
The year in cardiology 2016: Prevention Massimo F. Piepoli, Stefano Taddei, Ulrich Laufs, Eur Heart J (2017) ehw637.
Prevalence and management of familial hypercholesterolaemia in patients with acute coronary syndrom Nanchen , Eur Heart J (2015) 36 (36): 2438-2445.
Plasma ceramides predict cardiovascular death in patients with stable coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndromes beyond LDL-cholesterol Reijo Laaksonen, Eur Heart J (2016) 37 (25): 1967-1976.
Alirocumab in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia undergoing lipoprotein apheresis: the ODYSSEY ESCAPE trial. Moriarty PM, Parhofer KG, Babirak SP, Cornier MA, Duell PB, Hohenstein B, Leebmann J, Ramlow W, Schettler V, Simha V, Steinhagen-Thiessen E, Thompson PD, Vogt A, von Stritzky B, Du Y, Manvelian G. Eur Heart J (2016) 37 (48): 3588-3595.
Safety and efficacy of LY3015014, a monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9): a randomized, placebo-controlled Phase 2 study John J.P. Kastelein, Eur Heart J (2016) 37 (17): 1360-1369.
ODYSSEY FH I and FH II: 78 week results with alirocumab treatment in 735 patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia John J.P. Kastelein, Eur Heart J (2015) 36 (43): 2996-3003.
The impact of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 serine protease inhibitors on lipid levels and outcomes in patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia: a network meta-analysis J. Lipinski, Eur Heart J (2015) 37 (6): 536-545.
Heart failure outcomes with empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk: results of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial Fitchett, Eur Heart J (2016) 37 (19): 1526-1534.
Statin-associated muscle symptoms: impact on statin therapy—European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel Statement on Assessment, Aetiology and Management E.S.Stroes , Eur Heart J (2015) 36 (17): 1012-1022.
Mutations causative of familial hypercholesterolaemia: screening of 98 098 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study estimated a prevalence of 1 in 217 Marianne Benn, Eur Heart J (2016) 37 (17): 1384-1394.
The benefit of adding ezetimibe to statin therapy in patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery and acute coronary syndrome in the IMPROVE-IT trial Eisen , Eur Heart J (2016) 37 (48): 3576-3584.
Patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia are characterized by presence of cardiovascular disease at the time of death.W.Krogh, L. Mundal, Kirsten B. Holven, K. Retterstøl, Eur Heart J (2015) 37 (17): 1398-1405.
Gutmicrobiota-dependent trimethylamine N-oxide in acute coronary syndromes: a prognostic marker for incident cardiovascular events beyond traditional risk factors. Xinmin S. Li, Slayman Obeid et al, Eur Heart J (2017) ehw582.
Gut microbiota and acute coronary syndromes- ready for use in the emergency room? Marius Troseid, Eur Heart J (2017) ehx005.
Biology of proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9: beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol loweringGiuseppe Danilo Norata, Cardiovasc Res (2016) 112 (1): 429-442.The role of high-density lipoproteins in the regulation of angiogenesisJoanne T.M. Tan, Cardiovasc Res (2015) 106 (2): 184-193. Low TLR7 gene expression in atherosclerotic plaques is associated with major adverse cardio- and cerebrovascular eventsGlykeria Karadimou, Cardiovasc Res (2017) 113 (1): 30-39
Increasing mortality from ischaemic heart disease in China from 2004 to 2010: disproportionate rise in rural areas and elderly subjects. 438 million person-years follow-up Zhang, A. A. Khan, E. Ul Haq, A. Rahim, D. Hu, J. Attia, C. Oldmeadow, X. Ma, R. Ding, A. J. Boyle, Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes (2016) 3 (1): 47-52.
Permanent work disability in patients ≤50 years old after percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting (the CRAGS study) Anna Lautamäki, Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes (2016) qcw043.
Outcomes differ by first documented rhythm after witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in children: an observational study with prospective nationwide population-based cohort database in Japan Masahiko Hara, Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes (2016) 3 (1): 83-92.
The relationship between preoperative frailty and outcomes following transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis Atul Anand , Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes (2016) qcw030.
Cardiovascular disease predicts diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes: A 10-year prospective study Ybarra-Muñoz J, Jurado-Campos J, Garcia-Gil M, Zabaleta-Del-Olmo E, Mir-Coll T, Zabalegui A, Vidal J, Romeo JH. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2016, Vol. 15(4) 248 –254
Long-term outcomes from Healthy Eating and Exercise Lifestyle Program for overweight people with heart disease and diabetes.Alharbi M, Gallagher R, Kirkness A, Sibbritt D, Tofler G. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2016, Vol. 15(1) 91–99
Cardiovascular disease prevention via a nurse-facilitated intervention clinic in a regional setting: the Protecting Healthy Hearts Program.Carrington MJ, Stewart S. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2015, Vol. 14(4) 352–361
The effects of a counselling intervention on lifestyle change in people at risk of cardiovascular disease.Ylimäki EL, Kanste O, Heikkinen H, Bloigu R, Kyngäs H. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2015, Vol. 14(2) 153 –161
Changes in lifestyle modestly reduce the estimated cardiovascular disease risk in one-year follow-up of the Finnish diabetes prevention program (FIN-D2D). Rautio N, Jokelainen J, Pölönen A, Oksa H, Peltonen M, Vanhala M, Puolijoki H, Moilanen L, Tuomilehto J, Uusitupa M, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Saaristo T. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2015, Vol. 14(2) 145 –152
Lifestyle interventions reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized clinical trial.Saffi MA, Polanczyk CA, Rabelo-Silva ER. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2014, Vol. 13(5) 436 –443
Gene-environment interactions in cardiovascular disease.Flowers E, Froelicher ES, Aouizerat BE. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 11(4) 472 –478
Knowledge, attitudes and current practice of Jordanian family physicians about prescribing aspirin in primary and secondary prevention of vascular diseases: a self-reported surveyAl Omari M, Khader Y, Al-azzam SI, Dauod AS, Khassawneh AH, Alomari N, Alzoubi KH. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 11(1) 9 –13
Efficacy of multifactorial lifestyle interventions in patients with established cardiovascular diseases and high risk groups.Blokstra A, van Dis I, Verschuren WM. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 11(1) 97 –104
Facts and numbers on epidemiology and pharmacological treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.Frank Edelmann, ESC Heart Failure 2015; 2:41–45
Heart failure in Southeast Asia: facts and numbersCarolyn S.P. Lam, ESC Heart Failure 2015; 2:46–49
Acute heart failure facts and numbers: acute heart failure populationsJulia Searle, Johann Frick and Martin Möckel, ESC Heart Failure 2016; 3:65–70
Heart failure epidemiology and novel treatments in JapanMasaaki Konishi, Junichi Ishida, Jochen Springer, Stephan von Haehling, Yoshihiro J. Akashi, Hiroaki Shimokawa and Stefan D. Anker ESC Heart Failure 2016; 3: 145–151
National trends in heart failure hospitalization rates in Slovenia 2004-2012Omersa D, Farkas J, Erzen I, Lainscak M, European Journal of Heart Failure (2016) 18, 1321 –1328
Heart failure epidemiology 2000-2013: insights from the German Federal Health Monitoring SystemChrist M, Störk S, Dörr M, Heppner HJ, Müller C, Wachter R, Riemer U. for Trend HF Germany Project, European Journal of Heart Failure (2016) 18, 1009–1018
Medical resource use and expenditure in patients with chronic heart failure: a population-based analysis of 88 195 patientsFarré N, Vela E, Clèries M, Bustins M, Cainzos-Achirica M, Enjuanes C, Moliner P, Ruiz S, Verdú-Rotellar JM, Comín-Colet J, European Journal of Heart Failure (2016) 18, 1132–1140
Thirty-year trends in heart failure hospitalization and mortality rates and the prognostic impact of co-morbidity: a Danish nationwide cohort studySchmidt M, Ulrichsen SP, Pedersen L, Bøtker HE, Sørensen HT European Journal of Heart Failure (2016) 18, 490–499
Epidemiology of heart failure: the prevalence of heart failure and ventricular dysfunction in older adults over time. A systematic reviewVan Riet EE, Hoes AW, Wagenaar KP, Limburg A, Landman MA, Rutten FH European Journal of Heart Failure (2016) 18, 242–252
Incidence of heart failure in 6083 elderly hypertensive patients: the Second Australian National Blood Pressure Study (ANBP2)Sahle BW, Owen AJ, Krum H, Reid CM, Second Australian National Blood Pressure Study Management Committee European Journal of Heart Failure (2016) 18, 38–45
Temporal trends in the epidemiology, management, and outcome of patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute coronary syndromes. De Luca L, Olivari Z, Farina A, Gonzini L, Lucci D, Di Chiara A, Casella G, Chiarella F, Boccanelli A, Di Pasquale G, De Servi S, Bovenzi FM, Gulizia MM, Savonitto S, European Journal of Heart Failure (2015) 17, 1124–1132
Cardiogenic shock in intensive care units: evolution of prevalence, patient profile, management and outcomes, 1997-2012Puymirat E, Fagon JY, Aegerter P, Diehl JL, Monnier A, Hauw-Berlemont C, Boissier F, Chatellier G, Guidet B, Danchin N, Aissaoui N, Collège des Utilisateurs de Bases de données en Réanimation (CUB-Réa Group [Intensive Care Database User Group]) European Journal of Heart Failure (2017) 19, 192–200
Fifteen-year trends in the management of cardiogenic shock and associated 1-year mortality in elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction: the FAST-MI programmeAissaoui N, Puymirat E, Juilliere Y, Jourdain P, Blanchard D, Schiele F, Guéret P, Popovic B, Ferrieres J, Simon T, Danchin N. European Journal of Heart Failure (2016) 18, 1144–1152
Adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with reduced risk of heart failure in menTektonidis TG, Åkesson A, Gigante B, Wolk A, Larsson SC, European Journal of Heart Failure (2016) 18, 253–259
High serum erythropoietin levels are related to heart failure development in subjects from the general population with albuminuria: data from PREVEND Grote Beverborg N, van der Wal HH, Klip IT, Voors AA, de Boer RA, van Gilst WH, van Veldhuisen DJ, Gansevoort RT, Hillege HL, van der Harst P, Bakker SJ, van der Meer P European Journal of Heart Failure (2016) 18,814–821
ExtraHF survey: the first European survey on implementation of exercise training in heart failure patients Piepoli MF, Binno S, Corrà U, Seferovic P, Conraads V, Jaarsma T, Schmid JP, Filippatos G, Ponikowski PP; Committee on Exercise Physiology & Training of the Heart Failure Association of the ESC , European Journal of Heart Failure (2015) 17,631 –638
Efficiently screening heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetesBoonman-de Winter LJ, Rutten FH, Cramer MJ, Landman MJ, Zuithoff NP, Liem AH, Hoes AW European Journal of Heart Failure (2015) 17, 187–195
What does the lay public know about heart failure? Findings from the Heart Failure Awareness Day Initiative Störk S, Kavoliuniene A, Vinereanu D, Ludwig R, Seferovic P, Dickstein K, Anker SD, Filippatos G, Ponikowski P, Lainscak M, European Journal of Heart Failure (2016) 18, 66–70
A consensus statement on lipid management after acute coronary syndromeFrançois Schiele, Michel Farnier, Michel Krempf, Eric Bruckert, Jean Ferrières, on behalf of the French Group, European Heart Journal: Acute Cardiovascular Care 1 –12
Masked hypertension: understanding its complexity.Franklin SS, O'Brien E, Staessen JA , Eur Heart J (2016) ehw502.
Reduced blood pressure-lowering effect of catheter-based renal denervation in patients with isolated systolic hypertension: data from SYMPLICITY HTN-3 and the Global SYMPLICITY Registry.Mahfoud F, Bakris G, Bhatt DL, Esler M, Ewen S, Fahy M, Kandzari D, Kario K, Mancia G, Weber M, Böhm M . Eur Heart J (2016) 38 (2): 93-100.
Negative statin-related news stories decrease statin persistence and increase myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality: a nationwide prospective cohort study.Nielsen SF, Nordestgaard BG. Eur Heart J (2015) 37 (11): 908-916.
Inflamed human carotid plaques evaluated by PET/CT exhibit increased temperature: insights from an in vivo studyKonstantinos Toutouzas, Iosif Koutagiar, Georgios Benetos, Constantina Aggeli, Alexandros Georgakopoulos, Emmanouil Athanasiadis, Nikoletta Pianou, Sofoklis Trachanellis, Nikolaos Patelis, George Agrogiannis Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging (2016) jew219.
Intravascular ultrasound and near-infrared spectroscopic features of coronary lesions with intraplaque haemorrhageMitsuaki Matsumura Gary S. Mintz Soo-Jin Kang Stephen T. Sum Sean P. MaddenAllen P. Burke James Goldstein Rupa Parvataneni Gregg W. Stone James E. Muller. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging (2016) jew217.
Combined non-invasive assessment of endothelial shear stress and molecular imaging of inflammation for the prediction of inflamed plaque in hyperlipidaemic rabbit aortasGitsios Gitsioudis Yiannis S. Chatzizisis Peter Wolf Anna MissiouAntonios P. Antoniadis Dimitrios Mitsouras Sönke Bartling Zeynep AricaMatthias Stuber Frank J. Rybicki Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging (2016) 18 (1): 19-30.
The influence of lipid-containing plaque composition assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy on coronary lesion remodelling Hideaki Ota Marco A. Magalhaes Rebecca Torguson Smita Negi Max R. KollmerMia-Ashley Spad Jiaxiang Gai Lowell F. Satler William O. Suddath Augusto D. Pichard Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging (2015) 17 (7): 821-831.
Variability of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol response with different doses of atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin: results from VOYAGER Björn W. Karlson, Olov Wiklund, Michael K. Palmer, Stephen J. Nicholls, Pia Lundman, Philip J. Barter Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother (2016) 2 (4): 212-217.
Assessment of cardiovascular risk of new drugs for the treatment of diabetesAssessment of cardiovascular risk of new drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus: risk assessment vs. risk aversionFaiez Zannad, Wendy Gattis Stough, Raymond J. Lipicky, Juan Tamargo, George L. Bakris, Jeffrey S. Borer, Maria de los Angeles Alonso García, Samy Hadjadj, Wolfgang Koenig, Stuart Kupfer, Peter A. McCullough, Ofri Mosenzon, Stuart Pocock, André J. Scheen, Harald Sourij, Bart Van der Schueren, Christina Stahre, William B. White, Gonzalo Calvo Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother (2016) 2 (3): 200-205.
#1 To critically evaluate the clinical implications of the use of non-fasting rather than fasting lipid profiles and to provide guidance for the laboratory reporting of abnormal non-fasting or fasting lipid profiles. Back to top
#2 ODYSSEY ESCAPE (NCT02326220) was a double-blind study in 62 HeFH patients undergoing regular weekly or Q2W lipoprotein apheresis to evaluate the effect of alirocumab on frequency of standard apheresis treatments [weekly or every 2 weeks (Q2W)] in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH). Back to top
#3 It was previously reported that in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial, empagliflozin added to standard of care reduced the risk of 3-point major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular and all-cause death, and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. Now further investigation has been conducted into heart failure outcomes in all patients and in subgroups, including patients with or without baseline heart failure Back to top
#4 Systemic levels of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a pro-atherogenic and pro-thrombotic metabolite produced from gut microbiota metabolism of dietary trimethylamine (TMA)-containing nutrients such as choline or carnitine, predict incident cardiovascular event risks in stable primary and secondary prevention subjects. However, the prognostic value of TMAO in the setting of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) remains unknown. Back to top
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