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How to use cardiopulmonary exercise testing in cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation

Alessandro Mezzani and Marco Guazzi, EAPC Exercise, Basic and Translational Research Section, answer key questions

Over the last 30 years, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) has gained widespread acceptance as the gold standard for exercise capacity assessment and prognostic stratification in both normal subjects and patients with cardiovascular and several non-cardiovascular diseases in stable clinical conditions.

Risk Factors and Prevention