In order to bring you the best possible user experience, this site uses Javascript. If you are seeing this message, it is likely that the Javascript option in your browser is disabled. For optimal viewing of this site, please ensure that Javascript is enabled for your browser.
Did you know that your browser is out of date? To get the best experience using our website we recommend that you upgrade to a newer version. Learn more.

We use cookies to optimise the design of this website and make continuous improvement. By continuing your visit, you consent to the use of cookies. Learn more

EHS Publications 2000-2008

Last results published from the EHS programme


 

Acute Coronary Syndromes

Results published in the European Heart Journal

  • A prospective survey of the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes in Europe and the Mediterranean basin: The Euro Heart Survey of Acute Coronary Syndromes (Euro Heart Survey ACS).   Hasdai D, Behar S, Wallentin L, Danchin N, Gitt AK, Boersma E, Fioretti PM, Simoons ML, Battler A. Eur Heart J 2002;23:1190-1201. 
  • Simoons ML. The quality of care in acute coronary syndromes (editorial). Eur Heart J 2002;23:1141-1142.
  • Acute coronary syndromes in patients with pre-existing to severe valvular disease of the heart: lessons form the Euro Heart Survey of Acute Coronary Syndromes .Hasdai D, Lev EI, Behar S, Boyko V, Danchin N, Vahanian A, Battler A.  Eur Heart J 2003;24:623-629
  • Cardiac biomarkers and acute coronary syndromes - The Euro Heart Survey Acute Coronary Syndromes Experience ..  Hasdai D, Behar S, Boyko V, Danchin N, Bassand JP, Battler A .Eur Heart J 2003; 24:1189-1194.
  • Sex, age and clinical presentation of acute coronary syndromes.  Rosengren A, Wallentin L, Gitt AK, Behar S, Battler A, Hasdai D.  Eur Heart J 2004;25:663-670.
  • Lenderink T, Boersma E, Gitt Ak, Zeymer U, Wallentin L, Van de Werft F, Hasdai D, Behar S, Simoons ML. Patients using statin treatment within 24 h after admission for ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes had lower mortality than non-users : a report from the first Euro Heart Survey on acute coronary syndromes . Eur Heart J 2006;27:1799-804.
  • The second Euro Heart Survey on acute coronary syndromes: Characteristics, treatment and outcome of patients with ACS in Europe and the Mediterranean basin in 2004. Mandelzweig L, Battler A, Boyko V, Bueno H, Danchin N, Filippatos G, Gitt A, Hasdai D, Hasin Y, Marrugat J, Van de Werf F, Wallentin L, Behar S for the Euro Heart Survey Investigators. Eur Heart J 2006; 27(19): 2285-2293.

Other Journals

  • Acute Coronary Syndromes in patients with prior cerebrovascular events: lessons from the Euro Heart Survey on Acute Coronary Syndromes.Hasdai D, Haim M, Behar S, Boyko V, Battler A.  Am Heart J 2003;24:832-838.
  • Effect of gender on outcome of acute coronary syndromes. Hasdai D, Porter A, Rosengren A, Behar S, Boyko V, Battler A. Am J Cardiol 2003; 91:1466-1469.
  • Frequency, characteristics and outcome of acute coronary syndromes - The Euro Heart Survey of Acute Coronary Syndromes experience . Lev EI, Battler A, Behar S, Porter A, Haim M, Boyko V, Hasdai D . Am J Cardiol 2003; 91;224-227.
  • Acute coronary syndromes complicated by symptomatic and asymptomatic heart failure. Does current treatment comply with guidelines?  Haim M, Battler A, Behar S, Boyko V, Fioretti PM, Hasdai D. Am Heart J 2004;147: 859-864. Erratum in : Am Heart J. 2004;148:325.
  • Acute coronary syndromes complicated by symptomatic and asymptomatic heart failure. Does current treatment comply with guidelines?  Haim M, Battler A, Behar S, Boyko V, Fioretti PM, Hasdai D . Am Heart J 2004;147: 859-864.
  • Treatment modalities of diabetes mellitus and outcomes of acute coronary syndromes. Hasdai D, Behar S, Boyko V, Battler A.  Coronary Artery Disease 2004;15 :129-135.
  • Diabetes mellitus, clinical presentation and outcome in men and women with acute coronary syndromes. Dotevall A, Hasdai D, Wallentin L, Battler A, Rosengren A   Data from the Euro Heart Survey ACS. Diabetic Medicine 2005;22: 1542-1550.
  • Does current treatment of cardiogenic shock complicating the acute coronary syndromes comply with guidelines?  Iakobishvili Z, Behar S, Boyko V, Battler A, Hasdai D.  Am Heart J 2005; 149: 98-103.
  • Balloon-floating right-heart-catheter monitoring for acute coronary syndromes complicated by heart failure – discordance between guidelines and reality.  Porter A, Iakobishvili Z, Haim M, Behar S, Boyko V, Battler A, Hasdai D.  Cardiology 2005; 104 : 186-190.
  • Cardiovascular risk factors and clinical presentation in acute coronary syndromes. A Rosengren, L Wallentin, M Simoons, AK Gitt, S Behar, A Battler, D Hasdai. . Heart 2005;91:1141-7.
  • The outcome of coronary artery bypass grafting surgery among patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes. The Euro Heart Survey of acute coronary syndrome experience . Solodky A, Behar S,  Boyko V, Battler A, Hasdai D.  Cardiology 2005;103(1):44-7.
  • Nieuwlaat R, Lenzen M, Crijns HJGM, Prins MH, Scholte op Reimer WJM, Battler A, Hasdai D, Danchin N, Gitt AK, Simoons ML, Boersma E. Which factors are associated with the application of reperfusion therapy in ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes ? Lessons from the Euro Heart Survey on Acute Coronary Syndromes I . Cardiology 2006;106:137-146.

Coronary Interventions

Results published in the European Heart Journal

Results published in EuroIntervention journal

  • An insight into the current use of drug eluting stents in acute and elective percutaneous coronary interventions in Europe: A report on the EuroPCI survey. EuroIntervention, 2007, 3, 429-441.

Adult Congenital Heart Disease

Results published in the European Heart Journal

  • The spectrum of adult congenital heart disease in Europe: morbidity and mortality in a 5 year follow-up period.  Peter Engelfriet, Jan Tijssen, harald Kaemmerer, Michael A. Gatzoulis, Eric Boersma, Erwin Oechslin, Erik Thaulow, Jana Popelova, Philip Moons, Folkert Meijboom, Luciano Daliento, Rafael Hirsch, Valérie Laforest, Ulf Thilen, and BarbaraMulder . The Euro Heart Survey on adult congenital heart disease . Eur Heart J 2005;26,2325-2333.
  • Adherence to guidelines in the clinical care for adults with congenital heart disease: The Euro Heart Survey on Adult Congenital Heart Disease. Peter Engelfriet, Jan Tijssen, harald Kaemmerer, Michael A. Gatzoulis, Eric Boersma, Erwin Oechslin, Erik Thaulow, Jana Popelova, Philip Moons, Folkert Meijboom, Luciano Daliento, Rafael Hirsch, Valérie Laforest, Ulf Thilen, and Barbara Mulder.Eur Heart J 2006;27:737-45.
  • de Groot NM, Schalij MJ . Euro Heart Survey on adult congenital heart disease: concern for the complexity of care. Eur Heart J 2006;27:1268-9.
  • Moons P, Engelfriet P, Kaemmerer H, Meijboom FJ, Oechslin E, Mulder BJ, Expert Committee of Euro Heart Survey on Adult Congenital Heart Disease . Delivery of care for adult patients with congenital heart disease in Europe: results from the Euro Heart Survey . Eur Heart J 2006;27:1324-30.

Other Journals

  •  Moons P, Scholte op Reimer WJM, De Geest S, Fridlund B, Heikkilä J, Jaarsma T, Martensson J, Smith K, Stewart S, Strömberg A, Thompson DR .  Undertaking Nursing Interventions Throughout Europe (UNITE) Research Group. Nurse specialists in Adult Congenital Heart Disease: the current status in Europe. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2006;5:60-7.
  •  Engelfriet PM, Boersma E, Tijssen JG, Bouma BJ, Mulder BJ. Beyond the root: Dilatation of the distal aorta in the marfan syndrome. Heart 2006 Feb 17 [ Epub ahead of print ]
  • Hoffmann A, Engelfriet P, Mulder B. Radiation exposure during follow-up of adults with congenital heart disease. Int J Cardiol. 2006 Sep 21; [Epub ahead of print].
  • Engelfriet PM, Duffels MGJ, Möller T, Boersma E, Tijssen JGP, Thaulow E, Gatzoulis MA, Mulder BJM.  Pulmonary arterial hypertension in adults born with a heart septal defect. Accepted for publication in Heart
  • Engelfriet PM, Drenthen W, Pieper PG, Tijssen JGP, Yap SC, Boersma E, Mulder BJM: Smoking and its effects on mortality in adults with congenital heart disease. Int J Cardiol 127: 93-97, 2008.
  • Engelfriet P, Meijboom FJ, Boersma E, Tijssen JGP, Mulder BJM: Repaired and open atrial septal defects type II in adulthood: an epidemiological study of a large European cohort. Int J Cardiol 126: 379-385, 2008.

Atrial Fibrillation

Results published in the European Heart Journal

  • Atrial fibrillation management: a prospective survey in ESC member Countries. The Euro Heart Survey on Atrial Fibrillation .Robby Nieuwlaat, Alessandro Capucci, A. John Camm, S. Bertil Olsson, Dietrich Andresen, D. Wyn Davies, Stuart Cobbe, Günter Breithardt, Jean-Yves Le Heuzey, Martin H. Prins, Samuel Lévy, and Harry J.G.M. Crijns on behalf of the Euro Heart Survey Investigators. Eur Heart J 2005;26:2422-2434
  • The Euro Heart Survey on atrial fibrillation : a picture and a thousand words.Wyse DG . Eur Heart J 2005;26:2356-7.
  • Antithrombotic treatment in real-life atrial fibrillation patients: a report from the Euro Heart Survey on Atrial Fibrillation. Robby Nieuwlaat, Alessandro Capucci, Gregory Y.H. Lip, S. Bertil Olsson, Martin H. Prins, Fred H. Nieman, José López-Sendón, Panos E. Vardas, Etienne Aliot, Massimo Santini, Harry J.G.M. Crijns on behalf of the Euro Heart Survey Investigators.
    Eur Heart J December 2006;27: 3018-3026
  • Prognosis, disease progression, and treatment of atrial fibrillation patients during 1 year: follow-up of the Euro Heart Survey on Atrial Fibrillation.  Robby Nieuwlaat, Martin H. Prins, Jean-Yves Le Heuzey, Panos E. Vardas, Etienne Aliot, Massimo Santini, Stuart M. Cobbe, Jos W.M.G. Widdershoven, Leo H. Baur, Samuel Lévy, and Harry J.G.M. Crijns.    Eur. Heart J., May 2008; 29: 1181 - 1189. 
  • Should we abandon the common practice of withholding oral anticoagulation in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation?
    Robby Nieuwlaat, Trang Dinh, S. Bertil Olsson, A. John Camm, Alessandro Capucci, Robert G. Tieleman, Gregory Y.H. Lip, Harry J.G.M. Crijns on behalf of the Euro Heart Survey Investigators
    Eur. Heart J., April 2008; 29: 915 - 922.
  • Autonomic trigger patterns and anti-arrhythmic treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: data from the Euro Heart Survey.  Cees B. de Vos, Robby Nieuwlaat, Harry J.G.M. Crijns, A. John Camm, Jean-Yves LeHeuzey, Charles J. Kirchhof, Alessandro Capucci, Günter Breithardt, Panos E. Vardas, Ron Pisters, and Robert G. Tieleman
    Eur. Heart J., March 2008; 29: 632 - 639.
  • Atrial fibrillation in the ‘real world’: undecided issues.  Robby Nieuwlaat, Luc W. Eurlings, Alessandro Capucci, and Harry J.G.M. Crijns
    Eur. Heart J. Suppl., December 2007; 9: I122 - I128.

Other Journals

  • Costs of atrial fibrillation in five European countries: results from the Euro Heart Survey on atrial fibrillation
    Anna Ringborg, Robby Nieuwlaat, Peter Lindgren, Bengt Jönsson, Dogan Fidan, Aldo P. Maggioni, Jose Lopez-Sendon, Janina Stepinska, Dennis V. Cokkinos, and Harry J.G.M. Crijns
    Europace, April 2008; 10: 403 - 411.

Coronary Prevention

Completed survey

Results published in the European Heart Journal

  • EUROASPIRE: A European Society of cardiology survey of secondary prevention of coronary heart disease: Principal results. EUROASPIRE Study Group. Eur. Heart J., October 1997; 18: 1569- 1582 .
  • K. Kotseva, D.A. Wood , D.De Bacquer, J. Heidrich , G. De Backer on behalf of the EUROASPIRE II Study Group. Cardiac rehabilitation for coronary patients: lifestyle, risk factor and therapeutic management. Results from the EUROASPIRE II survey. Eur. Heart J. Suppl., Dec 2004; 6:j 17-j 26. 
  • T.F.M. Van Berkel, H. Boersma, D. De Baquer, J.W. Deckers, and D. Wood.   Registration and management of smoking behaviour in patients with coronary heart disease. The EUROASPIRE survey. Eur. Heart J., November 1999; 20: 1630 - 1637. 
  • EUROASPIRE II Study Group. Lifestyle and risk factor management and use of drug therapies in coronary patients from 15 countries. Principal results from EUROASPIRE II Euro Heart Survey Programme. Eur Heart J 2001;22:554-572.  Download here (PDF, 957 Kb)
  • EUROpean Action on Secondary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events II study group. Screening of family members of patients with premature coronary heart disease results from the EUROASPIRE II family survey. De Sutter J, De Bacquer D, Kotseva K, Sans S, Pyörälä K, Wood D, De Backer G;¨Eur Heart J 2003;24:249-257.
  • Overweight and obesity in patients with established coronary heart disease: are we meeting the challenge? De Bacquer D, De Backer G, Cokkinos D, Keil U, Montaye M, Östör E, Pyörälä K, Sans S. Eur Heart J 2004;25:121-128.
  • Smoking behaviour in European patients with established coronary heart disease. Eur Heart J 2006; 27:35-41.

Other Journals

  • EUROASPIRE I and II Groups. Clinical reality of coronary prevention guidelines: a comparison of EUROASPIRE I and II in nine countries. Lancet 2001;357:995-1001.
  • The pursuit of secondary prevention targets in Czech coronary patients. A comparison of EUROASPIRE I and II surveys. Mayer O Jr, Simon J. Rosolova  H , De Bacquer D , EUROASPIRE I and II Study Groups. Cent Eur J Public Health 2002;10:307-311.
  • Contribution of nursing to risk factor management as perceived by patients with established coronary heart disease. Scholte op Reimer WJM , Jansen CH, de Swart EAM, Boersma E, Simoons ML, Deckers JW. EJCN 2002;1:87-94.
  • Boersma E, Keil U, De Bacquer D, De Backer G, Pyorala K, Poldermans D, Leprotti C, Pilotto L, de Swart E, Deckers JW, Heidrich J, Sans S, Kotseva K, Wood D, Ambrosio GB;  EUROASPIRE I and II Study Groups. Blood pressure is insufficiently controlled in European patients with established coronary heart disease. J Hypertens 2003;21:1831-1840.
  • Predictive value of classical risk factors and their control in coronary patients: a follow-up of the EUROASPIRE I Cohort . De Bacquer D, De Backer G, Ostor E, Simon J, Pyorala K; on behalf of the EUROASPIRE I Study Group. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehab 2003;10:289-295.
  • Educational level and risk factor profile of cardiac patients in the EUROASPIRE II substudy. Mayer O Jr, Simon J, Heidrich J, Cokkinos DV, De Bacquer D, on behalf of EUROASPIRE II Study Group. J Epidemiol Community Health 2004;58:47-52.
  • Risk factor management in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with coronary heart disease. Findings from the EUROASPIRE I and II surveys. Pyörälä K, Lehtp S, De Bacquer D, De Sutter J, Sans S, Keil U, Wood D, De Backer G, the EUROASPIRE I and II Study Groups. Diabetologia 2004;47:1257-1265.

Diabetes and the heart

Results published in the European Heart Journal

  • The prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation in patients with coronary artery disease across Europe. Bartnik  M, Rydén L, Ferrari R, Malmberg K, Pyörälä K, Simoons M, Standl E, Soler-Soler J, Öhrvik J, on behalf of the Euro Heart Survey Investigators. Eur Heart J 2004;25:1880-90.
  • M, Malmberg K, Norhammar A, Tenerz A, Ohrvik J, Ryden L . Newly detected abnormal glucose tolerance: an important predictor of long-term outcome after myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J 2004;25:1990-7.
  • Dotevall A, Rosengren A, Bartnik M, Malmberg K, Öhrvik J, Simoons M, Rydén L. Sex-related aspects on abnormal glucose regulation in patients with coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J. 2007; 28: 310 – 315.

Other Journals

  • Lenzen M, Rydén L, Öhrvik J, Bartnik M, Malmberg K, Scholte op Reime W, Simmons M L. Diabetes known or newly detected, but not impaired glucose regulation has a negative influence on 1-years outcome in patients with coronary artery disease: a report from the Euro Heart Survey on diabetes and the heart. Europ Heart J 2006; 27:2969-2974.
  • Bartnik M, Rydén L, Malmberg K, Öhrvik J, Pyörälä K, Standl E, Ferrari R, Simoons M, Soler-Soler J. Oral glucose tolerance test is needed for appropriate classification of glucose regulation in patients with coronary artery disease. A report from the Euro Heart Survey on diabetes and the heart. Heart 2007; 93:72-77.  
  • Anselmino M, Bartnik M, Malmberg K, Rydén L on behalf of the Euro Heart Survey Investigators. Management of coronary artery disease in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Acute management reasonable but secondary prevention unacceptably poor: a report from the Euro Heart Survey on Diabetes and the heart. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehab 2007; 14: 28-36.
  • Anselmino M, Malmberg K, Öhrvik J, Rydén L on behalf of the Euro Heart survey Investigators. Evidence-based medication and revascularization: powerful tools in the management of patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease. A report from the Euro Heart Survey on Diabetes and the Heart. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2008;15:216-223.
  • Anselmino M, Öhrvik J, Malmberg K, Standl E, Rydén L on behalf of the Euro Heart Survey Investigators.  Glucose lowering treatment in patients with coronary artery disease is prognostically important not only in established but also in newly detected diabetes mellitus: a report from the Euro Heart Survey on Diabetes and the Heart. Europ Heart J. 2008; 29:177-184.

Heart Failure

Results published in the European Heart Journal

  • The EuroHeart Failure survey programme - a survey on the quality of care among patients with heart failure in Europe. Part 1: patient characteristics and diagnosis.Cleland JGF, Swedberg K, Follath F, Komajda M, Cohen-Solal A, Aguilar JC, Dietz R, Gavazzi A, Hobbs R, Korewicki J, Madeira HC, Moiseyev VS, Preda I, Van Gilst WH, Widimsky J, for the Study Group on Diagnosis of the Working Group on Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology, Freemantle N, Eastaugh J, Mason J Eur Heart J 2003;24:442-463.
  • The EuroHeart Failure Survey Programme - a survey on the quality of care among patients with heart failure in Europe. Part 2: treatment.Komajda M, Follath F, Swedberg K, Cleland J, Aguilar JC, Cohen-Solal A, Dietz R, Gavazzi A, Van Gilst WH, Hobbs R, Korewicki J, Madeira HC, Moiseyev VS, Preda I, Widimsky J, Freemantle N, Eastaugh J, Mason J; Study Group on Diagnosis of the Working Group onHeart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology .Eur Heart J 2003;24:464-474.
  • Differences between patients with a preserved and a depressed left ventricular function: a report from the EuroHeart Failure Survey . Lenzen MJ, Scholte op Reimer WJM, Boersma E, Vantrimpont PJMJ, Follath F, Swedberg K, Cleland J, Komajda M. Eur Heart J 2004;25:1214-1220.
  • Under-utilization of evidence based drug treatment in patients with heart failure is only partially explained by dissimilarity to patients enrolled in landmark trials: a report from the Euro Heart Failure Survey. Mattie J. Lenzen, Eric Boersma, Wilma J.M. Scholte op Reimer, Aggie H.M.M. Balk, Michel komajda, Karl Swedberg, Ferenc Follath, Manuel Jimenez-Navarro, Maarten L. Simoons, and John Cleland. European Heart J 2005;26:2706-2713.
  • Lenzen MJ, Scholte op Reimer WJM, Komajda M. Differences between patients with a preserved and a depressed left ventricular function : a report from the Euro Heart Failure Survey:reply (Letters to the Editor). Eur heart J 2005;26:526.
  • Markku S. Nieminen, Dirk Brutsaert, Kenneth Dickstein, Helmut Drexler, Ferenc Follath, Veli-Pekka Harjola, Matthias Hochadel, Michel Komajda, Johan Lassus, Jose Luis Lopez-Sendon, Piotr Ponikowskiand Luigi Tavazzi on behalf of the EuroHeart Survey Investigators .  EuroHeart Failure Survey II (EHS II): a survey on hospitalized acute heart failure patients: description of population. Euro H.J. advance access published September 25, 2006.

Other Journals

  • The Euro Heart Failure Survey of the EUROHEART Survey Programme . A survey on the quality of care among patients with heart failure in Europe. Cleland JGF, Swedberg K, Cohen-Solal A, Cosin-Aguilar J, Dietz R, Follath F, Gavazzi A, Hobbs R, Korewicki J, Madeira HC, Preda I, van Gilst WH, Widimsky J, Mareev V, for The study group on Diagnosis of the Working Group on Heart Failure  of the European Society of Cardiology, Mason J, Freemantle N, Eastaugh J, for The Medicines Evaluation Group Centre for Health Economics University of York.  Eur J Heart Fail 2000;2:123-132.
  • Drechsler K, Dietz R, Klein H, Wollert KC, Strop D, Mollin J, Zeymer U, Niebauer J .Euro heart failure survey. Medical treatment not in line with current guidelines. Z Kardiol 2005;94:510-5.
  • Velavan P, Khan NK, Rigby AS, Goode K, Komajda M, Follath F, Swedberg K, Madeira H, Clark AL, Cleland JG. Relation between severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and repolarisation abnormalities on the surface ECG: a report from the Euro heart failure survey . Heart 2006;92:255-6.

Stable Angina

Results published in the European Heart Journal

  • The initial management of stable angina in Europe, from the Euro Heart Survey. A description of pharmacological management and revascularization strategies initiated within the first month of presentation to a cardiologist in the Euro Heart Survey of Stable Angina. Eur Heart J 2005;26:1011-1022.
  • The clinical characteristics and investigations planned in patients with stable angina presenting to cardiologists in Europe: from the Euro Heart Survey of Stable Angina. Eur Heart J 2005;26:996-1010.
  • The impact of guideline compliant medical therapy on clinical outcome in patients with stable angina: Findings from the Euro Heart Survey of Stable Angina. Eur Heart J June 2006;27:1298-1304.

Other Journals

  • Predicting prognosis in stable angina - results from the Euro Heart Survey of stable angina: prospective observational study. BMJ 2006;332:262-7.
  • Gender differences in the management and clinical outcome of Stable angina. Circulation 2006; 113:490-8.

General publications on the EHS Programme

Slide presentations

Cardiovascular Diseases in Europe 2004

Results from the Euro Heart Survey programme and national registries.
Selected slides from the brochure Cardiovascular Diseases in Europe 2004.
Download here (PDF 792 Kb).

Euro Heart Survey on Valvular Heart Disease

A selection of slides by Prof. Alec Vahanian, chairman of the Euro Heart Survey on Valvular Heart Disease, including interesting results.
Download here (PDF 378 Kb).

EUROASPIRE II - Euro Heart Survey on Secondary and Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease

Lifestyle and risk factor management and use of drug therapies in coronary patients from 15 countries. 
Download here (PDF 964 Kb).

The European Heart Survey - Inventory of the care of cardiovascular diseases in Europe. (Data showing the situation prior to year 2000).

Prof. Maarten Simoons.
Content : Differences among European Countries in age and gender distribution necessitates standardisation for international comparisons: 39 slides
Download here (zip file 785 Kb).