Our mission is to become a worldwide reference for education in the field for all professionals involved in the process to dissemintate knowledge & skills of Acute Cardiovascular Care
Our mission is to promote excellence in clinical diagnosis, research, technical development, and education in cardiovascular imaging in Europe.
Our mission: To promote excellence in research, practice, education and policy in cardiovascular health, primary and secondary prevention.
Our goal is to reduce the burden in cardiovascular disease in Europe through percutaneous cardiovascular interventions.
Our Mission is "to improve the quality of life of the population by reducing the impact of cardiac rhythm disturbances and reduce sudden cardiac death"
To improve quality of life and logevity, through better prevention, diagnosis and treatment of heart failure, including the establishment of networks for its management, education and research.
Working Groups goals is to stimulate and disseminate scientific knowledge in different fields of cardiology.
ESC Councils goal is to share knowledge among medical professionals practising in specific cardiology domains.
OUR MISSION: TO REDUCE THE BURDEN OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
Dr. E Domingo
Dr. Juan Grignola
Here described is the measuring of the cardiovascular reserve during dobutamine stress for early diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of therapeutic response in patients with suspected or established pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Whereas pulmonary hypertension is a pathophysiological state defined by an increased in mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥ 25 mm Hg at rest as assessed by right heart catheterisation, pulmonary arterial hypertension, on the other hand, is a distinct clinical group of uncommon conditions characterised only by 1) the presence of pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension and 2) the absence of other causes of pulmonary hypertension (left heart disease, lung disease, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension or other rare diseases). Pulmonary arterial hypertension is associated with a high mortality rate (1) thus, improving treatment outcome is especially important. A strategic objective is early detection and this can be achieved through early diagnosis of 1) pulmonary vascular disease and 2) right ventricular dysfunction; however problems in so doing are that 1) the rise in resting pulmonary arterial pressure is a late marker of the remodeling process occurring in the pulmonary arterial wall and 2) symptoms of right ventricular failure do not occur at rest until the latter stages of pulmonary vascular disease (2). We have migrated our focus from the pulmonary vasculature or the right ventricular function to the right heart-pulmonary circulation unit (RH-PCU), with special interest in evaluating the dynamic response of the RH-PCU to either exercise or pharmacological stress (3). Here reviewed is the concept of ventricular-vascular reserve and its potential clinical value in pulmonary artery hypertension.
Pulmonary circulation is unique in its ability to increase available capillary surface for gas exchange using a recruitable vascular reserve. Indeed, pulmonary circulation can accommodate cardiac output at low arterial pressure even during maximum exercise stress (4): the relative modest increment in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) relative to cardiac output (CO) during exercise or pharmacological testing is attributable to passive recruitment and distension of a normally compliant pulmonary circulation with active flow-mediated vasodilatation, decreasing pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and total pulmonary resistance (TPR) (5). The greater pulmonary vascular distensibility (α) and increase in the capillary blood component of lung diffusing capacity during exercise, the higher the maximal aerobic capacity (6). A feasible technique for stress testing of the pulmonary vasculature is to assess the mPAP-CO relationships. Invasive and non-invasive studies alike have shown that slope of linearised mPAP-CO relationships should not exceed 3 mm Hg/L/min (7). Additionally, we reported that passive increase of CO (dobutamine stress in the Trendelenburg position) was associated with a decrease in arterial stiffness (elastic modulus, EM); the preserved buffering function could explain the unchanged pulmonary vascular capacitance (8). In accordance, Guihaire et al showed very recently in normal piglets that dobutamine stress did not change arterial elastance (Ea) (9). The normal reserve of conduit and buffering functions is thought to maintain the proximal-distal pulmonary arterial coupling during stress (10).
Cardiac output of the RV increases during submaximal exercise. The CO increase composed of a heart rate and right heart stroke volume (SV) increase (11). We also reported that pharmacological stress determines a 56% increase in heart rate (chronotropic reserve) and a 20% increase in stroke volume (SV, systolic reserve) (8). Measuring RV contractile response to stress, Guihaire et al reported a significant increase of RV maximal elastance (Emax) during dobutamine stress, improving the Emax/Ea ratio from 1.24 to 2.14. The Emax/Ea ratios obtained in control subjects at rest were 1.9 ± 0.2 (12) and 1.5 ± 0.3 (13). Finally, Sharma et al obtained significant augmentations in both tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE, 25%) and tricuspid annulus systolic myocardial velocity (S', 90%) during peak dobutamine stress (20 mg/kg/min) (14).
Although dynamic exercise remains the most physiologic stressor in that patients symptoms and signs are replicated, the assessment of RH-PCU reserve using pharmacological stress is an appealing alternative to exercise stress due to theoretical advantages:
Non-invasive echocardiography is not considered totally reliable for the study of pulmonary circulation (16,17) due to an excessive proportion of false positives and false negatives in the detection of PH (18), as well as a suboptimal rate in the detection of tricuspid regurgitation jets. Exercise echocardiography is technically demanding and requires high expertise to the rapid acquisition of high quality images in tachypnoeic patients. However, in experienced and trained ecosonographers non-invasive assessment of RV contractile reserve and mPAP-CO relationships are feasible with dobutamine stress with respect to exercise stress.
The most identified prognostic indices in PAH have derived from direct measurements of RV function - echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging - or surrogate indicators of RV dysfunction such as right atrial pressure and cardiac index (19). Functional parameters (NYHA class, 6 min walking distance) and, in particular, cardiopulmonary exercise testing variables at the time of diagnosis have a superior prognostic significance to most standard resting haemodynamic parameters. Added to that fact, all exercise variables which have prognostic significance when determined at baseline, retain their prognostic relevance after treatment, and some, such as change of cardiac index (CI) from baseline upon treatment are an important tool for assessing disease severity and prognosis (20,21). The cardiovascular reserve function is emerging a strong predictor of outcome in heart failure and cardiovascular disease. Stressors (exercise or pharmacological) in patients with PAH test the ability of the diseased right heart to increase its output (former) and of the remodeled pulmonary arterial system to accommodate to the flow increase (latter). From a physiological point of view the former (ability to increase the cardiac output) evaluates the RV systolic reserve and the latter (ability to accomodate the flow increase) assesses the vascular reserve.
Some PAH patients with RV dysfunction at rest do much better in their exercise capacity, functional class and quality of life than others with the same impaired RV pump function at rest. It is proposed that these might differ in their RV or vascular reserve. Methods and indexes to assess cardiovascular reserve function need to be standardised. Ventricular and vascular reserve metrics can be estimated as the normalised change in ventricular and vascular function during stress when compared with rest.Two studies have recently studied the systolic RV reserve by surrogate indices and their relationship with functional state and survival in patients with PAH.
Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension exhibit markedly diminished right ventricular contractile reserve and arterial pulmonary vascular reserve. Abnormal stress responses occur even in patients with a relatively preserved resting hemodynamic at rest. There is evidence that impairment of cardiovascular stress response correlates with exercise capacity and prognosis, suggesting the potential clinical value of measures of cardiovascular reserve beyond resting measurements. Taking into account that hemodynamic changes (mPAP-CO relationships) generated by dobutamine and exercise stress may not be interchangeable, and that exercise stress can induce spurious increase in the mPAP-CO slope, we propose the dobutamine stress to assess right ventricular-pulmonary unit reserve. Further validation studies are required to assess the potential utility of measuring the cardiovascular reserve during dobutamine stress for early diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of therapeutic response in patients with suspected or established pulmonary arterial hypertension before implementation into clinical practice.
1. Definitions and diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension.Hoeper MM, Bogaard HJ, Condliffe R, Frantz R, Khanna D, Kurzyna M, Langleben D, Manes A, Satoh T, Torres F, Wilkins M, Badesch DB. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Dec 24;62(25 Suppl):D42-50.2. Early detection of pulmonary vascular disease in pulmonary arterial hypertension: time to move forward.Lau EM, Manes A, Celermajer DS, Galiè N. Eur Heart J. 2011 Oct;32(20):2489-98.3. The concept of ventricular reserve in heart failure and pulmonary hypertension: an old metric that brings us one step closer in our quest for prediction.Haddad F, Vrtovec B, Ashley EA, Deschamps A, Haddad H, Denault AY. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2011 Mar;26(2):123-31.4. Pulmonary circulation at exercise.Naeije R, Chesler NC Compr Physiol. 2012 Jan;2(1):711-41.5. Pulmonary vascular responses to exercise: a haemodynamic observation.Saggar R, Lewis GD, Systrom DM, Champion HC, Naeije R. Eur Respir J. 2012 Feb;39(2):231-34.6. Pulmonary vascular distensibility predicts aerobic capacity in healthy individuals.Lalande S, Yerly P, Faoro V, Naeije R. J Physiol. 2012 Sep 1;590(Pt 17):4279-88.7. Pulmonary vascular hemodynamic response to exercise in cardiopulmonary disease.Lewis GD, Bossone E, Naeije R, Grünig E, Saggar R, Lancellotti P, Ghio S, Varga J, Rajagopalan S, Oudiz R, Rubenfire M. Circulation. 2013 Sep 24;128(13):1470-9.8. Impairment of pulmonary vascular reserve and right ventricular systolic reserve in pulmonary arterial hypertension.Domingo E, Grignola JC, Aguilar R, Arredondo C, Bouteldja N, López Messeguer M, Roman A. BMC Pulmonary Medicine. 2014 Apr 24;14(1):69.9. Right ventricular reserve in a piglet model of chronic pulmonary hypertension.Guihaire J, Haddad F, Noly P-E. Boulate D, Decante B, Dartevelle P, Humbert M, Verhoye J-P, Mercier O, Fadel E. Eur Respir J. 2014 Dec 10. pii: ERJ-00813-2014. [Epub ahead of print].10. Vascular stiffening in pulmonary hypertension: cause or consequence?Tan W, Madhavan K, Hunter KS, Park D, Stenmark KR. Pulm Circ. 2014 Dec;4(4):560-80.11. Impaired stroke volume response to exercise in pulmonary arterial hypertension.Holverda S, Gan CT-J, Marcus JT, Postmus PE, Boonsta A, Vonk-Noordergraaf A. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Apr 18;47(8):1732-33.12. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of right ventricular pressure-volume loops: in vivo validation and clinical application in patients with pulmonary hypertension.Kuehne T, Yilmaz S, Steendjik P, Moore P, Groenink M, Saaed M, Weber O, Higgins CB, Ewert P, Fleck E, Nagel E, Schulze-Neick I, Lange P. Circulation. 2004 Oct 5;110(14):2010-16.13. Right ventricular dysfunction in chronic thromboembolic obstruction of the pulmonary artery. A pressure-volume study using the conductance catheter. McCabe C, White PA, Hoole SP, Axell RG, Priest AN, Gopalan D, Taboada D, MacKenzie Ross R, Morrell NW, Shapiro LM, Pepke-Zaba J. J Appl Physiol. 2014 Feb 14;116(4):355-63.14. Dobutamine stress for evaluation of right ventricular reserve in pulmonary arterial hypertension.Sharma T, Lau EM, Choudhary P, Torzillo PJ, Munoz PA, Simmons LR, Naeije R, Celermajer DS Eur Respir J. 2014 Oct 30. pii: erj00899-2014. [Epub ahead of print].15. Dobutamine stress echocardiography for the assessment of pressure-flow relationships of the pulmonary circulation.Lau EM, Vanderpool RR, Choudhary P, Simmons LR, Corte TJ, Argiento P, D'Alto M, Naeije R, Celermajer DS. Chest. 2014 Oct;146(4):959-66.16. Exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension.Tolle JJ, Waxman AB, Van Horn TL, Pappagianopoulos PP, Systrom DM. Circulation 2008 Nov 18;118(21):2183-9.17. Exercise stress echocardiography for the study of the pulmonary circulation.Argiento P, Chesler N, Mulè M, D'Alto M, Bossone E, Unger P, Naeije R. Eur Respir J. 2010 Jun;35(6):1273-8.18. Echocardiographic assessment of pulmonary hypertension in patients with advanced lung disease.Arcasoy SM, Christie JD, Ferrari VA, Sutton MS, Zisman DA, Blumenthal NP, Pochettino A, Kotloff RM. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Mar 1;167(5):735-40.19. Comprehensive invasive and noninvasive approach to the right ventricle-pulmonary circulation unit: state of the art and clinical and research implications.Champion H, Michelakis ED, Hassoun PM. Circulation. 2009 Sep 15;120(11):992-1007.20. Prognostic value of exercise pulmonary haemodynamics in pulmonary arterial hypertension.Chaouat A, Sitbon O, Mercy M, Ponçot-Mongars R, Provencher S, Guillaumot A, Gomez E, Selton-Suty C, Malvestio P, Regent D, Paris C, Hervé P, Chabot F. Eur Respir J. 2014 Sep;44(3):704-13.21. Prognostic relevance of changes in exercise test variables in pulmonary arterial hypertension.Groepenhoff H, Vonk-Noordegraaf A, van de Veerdonk MC, Boonstra A, Westerhof N, Bogaard HJ. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 5;8(9):e72013.22. Impact of right ventricular reserve on exercise capacity and survival in patients with pulmonary hypertension.Blumberg FC, Arzt M, Lange T, Schroll S, Pfeifer M, Wensel R. Eur J Heart Fail. 2013 Jul;15(7):771-5.23. Assessment and prognostic relevance of right ventricular contractile reserve in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension.Grünig E, Tiede H, Enyimayew EO, Ehlken N, Seyfarth HJ, Bossone E, D'Andrea A, Naeije R, Olschewski H, Ulrich S, Nagel C, Halank M, Fischer C. Circulation. 2013 Oct 29;128(18):2005-15.24. Pulmonary vascular wall stiffness: An important contributor to the increased right ventricular afterload with pulmonary hypertension. Wang Z & Chesler NC. Pulm Circ. 2011 Apr-Jun; 1(2): 212–223.
Grignola Juan C.1,2, Domingo E.3,41Pathophysiology Department, School of Medicine, Hospital de Clínicas, Universidad de la República, 2Pulmonary Hypertension Unit, Hospital Maciel, Ministerio de Salúd Pública, Montevideo, Uruguay; 3Area del Cor, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain,4Physiology Department, School of Medicine, Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, Spain.Authors' disclosures: None declared.