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Our mission: To promote excellence in research, practice, education and policy in cardiovascular health, primary and secondary prevention.
Our goal is to reduce the burden in cardiovascular disease in Europe through percutaneous cardiovascular interventions.
Our Mission is "to improve the quality of life of the population by reducing the impact of cardiac rhythm disturbances and reduce sudden cardiac death"
To improve quality of life and logevity, through better prevention, diagnosis and treatment of heart failure, including the establishment of networks for its management, education and research.
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OUR MISSION: TO REDUCE THE BURDEN OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
Prof. José-Luis Zamorano
Ms Adriana Saltijeral
Prof. Leopoldo Perez de Isla,
Obesity cardiomyopathy is associated with changes in the structure of the heart and left ventricular myocardial deformation in particular. These changes can occur as early as childhood and are independent from any other cardiovascular risk factors. Knowing about obesity-related disorders involving the heart, and early prevention, are key.
Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbi-mortality that has deleterious effects on cardiovascular function: obesity causes blood volume, cardiac output and workload to increase while lowering the level of total peripheral resistance (1, 2). With increased filling pressure and volume, patients often develop 1) left ventricular dilation (1,3) and eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy independently from arterial pressure and age (4,5 ) as well as left atrial enlargement, from increased circulating blood volume and abnormal left ventricular filling (1) as well as 2) complex ventricular arrhythmias (6) which cause adverse effects on diastolic and systolic function (2, 19, 20-22). Together, these changes constitute “obesity cardiomyopathy”.
Presence of obesity cardiomyopathy, is strongly associated with several cardiovascular risk factors however the exact cardiac alterations related to obesity have thus far been based on statistical adjustments. Precise determination of the role of obesity on cardiac alterations has been a matter of controversy. Indeed, left ventricular myocardial segments change in shape during systole and diastole, but deformation impairments may be "invisible" when using traditional imaging methods. 3D-Wall motion tracking echocardiography (3D-WMT), which analyses myocardial motion, provides information regarding left ventricular myocardial deformation able to detect subtle myocardial deformation impairments.
Several studies have demonstrated a definite association between left ventricular mass and obesity in children, independently from blood pressure levels (7). In the Strong Heart Study, significant impairment in left ventricular mass, wall mechanics and diastolic function were also found in adolescents (8). Others have analysed diastolic function in obese children and adolescents, finding altered transmitral and pulmonary venous velocities, suggesting a reduction in early diastolic filling. Additionally, they observed early diastolic function impairment related to body mass index (9-11). A recent study (12) enrolled thirty consecutive non-selected obese children, free from other cardiovascular risk factors and forty-two healthy children. Results showed that asymptomatic obesity is associated with myocardial deformation changes and that this association is independent from any other occurring cardiovascular risk factor. Furthermore, a decrease in systolic longitudinal and circumferential deformation, accompanied by an increase in systolic radial deformation in order to maintain the global contractility of the left ventricle was present in the asymptomatic obesity group. To summarise, obesity cardiomyopathy is associated with 1) changes in the structure of the heart and 2) left ventricular myocardial deformation changes. Furthermore, this association occurs as early as childhood and is independent from any other cardiovascular risk factor. This knowledge should lead us to develop new recommendations to avoid obesity, especially during childhood. Figure 1: 3D-Wall Motion Tracking Echocardiographic analysis. Left panel: left ventricular circumferential strain analysis of a normal (non-obese) child is shown. Right panel: left ventricular circumferential strain analysis of an obese) child is shown. There is a marked difference in mean left ventricular circumferential strain value between the two panels.
Knowing the disorders that can cause obesity involving the heart, and early prevention - as early as childhood, are key. Appropriate dietary measures and regular exercise will help with early treatment. Drug therapy and surgical treatment may be reserved for difficult-to-treat cases.
1. Alpert MA. Obesity cardiomyopathy: pathophysiology and evolution of the clinical syndrome. Am J Med Sci. 2001 Apr;321(4):225-36. 2. Messerli FH, Ventura HO, Reisin E, Dreslinski GR, Dunn FG, MacPhee AA, Frohlich ED. Borderline hypertension and obesity: two prehypertensive states with elevated cardiac output. Circulation 1982;66(1):55– 60. 3. Messerli FH. Cardioopathy of obesity: a not-so-Victorian disease. N Engl J Med 1986;314:378–80. 4. Lavie CJ, Milani RV. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: the Hippocrates paradox? J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:677–9. 5. Lavie CJ, Milani RV, Ventura HO, Cardenas GA, Mehra MR, Messerli FH. Disparate effects of left ventricular geometry and obesity on mortality in patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Am J Cardiol 2007;100:1460–4. 6. Messerli FH, Nunez BD, Ventura HO, Snyder DW. Overweight and sudden death: increased ventricular ectopy in cardiomyopathy of obesity. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1725– 8. 7. Li X, L. S.Ulusoy E, Chen W, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Childhood adiposity as a predictor of cardiac mass in adulthood: the Bogalusa heart study. Circulation, 2004, 3488-3492. 8. Chinali M, De Simone G, Roman MJ, Lee ET, Best LG, Howard BV, Devereux RB. Impact of obesity on cardiac geometry and function in a population of adolescents: the strong heart study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006 19: 130-134. 9. Harada K, Orino T, Takada G. Body mass index can predict left ventricular diastolic filling in asymptomatic obese children. Pediatr Cardiol. 2001 Jul-Aug;22(4):273-8 10. Mehta SK, Holliday C, Hayduk L, Wiersma L, Richards N, Younoszai A. Comparison of myocardial function in children with body mass indexes >/=25 versus those <25 kg/m2. Am J Cardiol. 2004 Jun 15;93(12):1567-9. 11. Van Putte-Katier N, Rooman RP, Haas L, Verhulst SL, Desager KN, Ramet J, Suys BE. Early cardiac abnormalities in obese children: importance of obesity per se versus associated cardiovascular risk factors. Pediatr Res. 2008 Aug;64(2):205-9. 12. Saltijeral A, Isla LP, Pérez-Rodríguez O, Rueda S, Fernandez-Golfin C, Almeria C, Rodrigo JL, Gorissen W, Rementeria J, Marcos-Alberca P, Macaya C, Zamorano J. Early Myocardial Deformation Changes Associated to Isolated Obesity: A Study Based on 3D-Wall Motion Tracking Analysis. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Jun 30. doi: 10.1038/oby.2011.157. [Epub ahead of print]
Leopoldo Pérez de Isla Unidad de Imagen Cardiovascular Hospital Carlos III Sinesio Delgado, 10 28029-Madrid, Spain
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