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Natural History of Unoperated Aortic Stenosis During a 50-Year Period of Cardiac Valve Replacement

Although a number of publications have described the natural history of patients with aortic stenosis (AS), the definition of “natural history” varies widely. Those describing a large number of patients with AS without operative therapy with necropsy findings are rare. Two hundred sixty patients >15 years of age with AS were studied at necropsy over a 50-year period by the same investigator. Of the 260 patients, the valve in 37 (14%) was congenitally unicuspid, in 123 (47%), congenitally bicuspid, and in 100 (38%), tricuspid. Aortic valve structure varied with age of death (in years; unicuspid 52 ± 17, bicuspid 63 ± 12, and tricuspid 70 ± 14 years); gender (men/women: unicuspid 95%/5%, bicuspid 78%/22%, and tricuspid 63%/37%), and frequency of calcium in the mitral valve annulus and epicardial coronary arteries. The patients with cardiac-related symptoms compared with those without were more likely to have a congenitally malformed valve (unicuspid 17% vs 12%; bicuspid 51% vs 29%; tricuspid 31% vs 60%; unadjusted p = 0.013), to die from cardiac disease (86% vs 54%; unadjusted p = 0.001), and to have larger hearts (mean cardiac weight 606 ± 138 g vs 523 ± 121 g; unadjusted p = 0.009) and a larger quantity of calcium in the aortic valve cusps. In conclusion, the length of survival in adults with AS is related to valve structure, gender, presence of cardiac-related symptoms, cardiac mass, and quantity of calcium in the aortic valve cusps.
7. Comparison of Incidence and Predictors of Left Bundle Branch Block After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Using the CoreValve Versus the Edwards Valve
Irene Franzoni, Azeem Latib, Francesco Maisano, Charis Costopoulos, Luca Testa, Filippo Figini, Francesco Giannini, Sandeep Basavarajaiah, Marco Mussardo, Massimo Slavich, Maurizio Taramasso, Micaela Cioni, Matteo Longoni, Santo Ferrarello, Andrea Radinovic, Simone Sala, Silvia Ajello, Alessandro Sticchi, Manuela Giglio, Eustachio Agricola, Alaide Chieffo, Matteo Montorfano, Ottavio Alfieri, Antonio Colombo
American journal of cardiology 2013;112(4),554-559
Conduction disorders and permanent pacemaker implantation are common complications in patients who undergo transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and clinical significance of new bundle branch block in patients who underwent TAVI with the Medtronic CoreValve Revalving System (MCRS) or the Edwards SAPIEN valve (ESV). Data from 238 patients with no previous pacemaker implantation, left bundle branch block (LBBB) or right bundle branch block at baseline electrocardiography who underwent TAVI with either MCRS (n = 87) or ESV (n = 151) bioprostheses from 2007 to 2011 were analyzed. New-onset LBBB occurred in 26.5% patients (n = 63): 13.5% with the ESV (n = 20) and 50.0% with the MCRS (n = 43) (p = 0.001). Permanent pacemaker implantation was required in 12.7% of patients (n = 8) because of complete atrioventricular block (ESV n = 2, MCRS n = 4), LBBB and first degree atrioventricular block (MCRS n = 1) and new-onset LBBB associated with sinus bradycardia (MCRS n = 1). At discharge, LBBB persisted in 8.6% of ESV patients (n = 13) and 32.2% of MCRS patients (n = 28) (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the only predictor of LBBB was MCRS use (odds ratio 7.2, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 17.4, p <0.001). Persistent new-onset LBBB at discharge was not associated with overall (log-rank p = 0.42) or cardiovascular (log-rank p = 0.46) mortality. New-onset right bundle branch block was documented in 4.6% of patients (n = 11), with no statistically significant differences between the ESV and MCRS. In conclusion, new-onset LBBB is a frequent intraventricular conduction disturbance after TAVI with a higher incidence with the MCRS compared with the ESV. LBBB persists in most patients, but in this cohort, it was not a predictor of overall or cardiovascular mortality or permanent pacemaker implantation.

Notes to editor

William C. Roberts, Travis J. Vowels, Giovanni Filardo, Jong M. Ko, Raj P. Mathur, Jamshid Shirani
American journal of cardiology 2013;112(4),541-553

The content of this article reflects the personal opinion of the author/s and is not necessarily the official position of the European Society of Cardiology.